Ultimele Noutati
Agricultura Banatului nr. 128 online
 
Feb
23
Postat de: AdminAGRO
Sectiune: Faculty of Agriculture
Numarul 1268 al revistei
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Parteneri
 
 
Chapter 2 Sustainable Development and Environmental Engineering

 

 INFLUENCE OF FOREST CURTAINS ON CROPS IN SOUTH DOBROGEA
 
Anca-Nicoleta  Albu, Liliana  Panaitescu, Marius Lungu
„Ovidius”University  Constanta
 
Abstract: The position of the Dobrogea Plateau in the south-east of Romania and in the close vicinity of Black Sea accounts for its top continental climate in Romania. The climatic changes which determined within the latest years the intensification of extreme phenomenon, who has an unfavourable influence on the planted or spontaneous vegetation. To reduce and prevent these phenomena have planted a series of experimental protective forest belt near Mangalia, observing a series of advantages in terms of protection and evolution of cultivated plants. Experimental network in Mangalia contains a 20 number of protective forest belts, aged 5 to 10 years, of which 15 consist of mixtures of locust and 5 acacia. Curtains of mixed species differ both as age, height, width and planting scheme, and hence their penetrability is different. Measurements were made with anemomete and portable vane, in June, July, August, which were taken into account during the growing season and the angle that the wind made him the veil of protection from which direction it was blowing at the time making observations. Research has shown that wind speed is reduced so before curtain (the wind) and the forest behind the curtain and the reduction of wind speed value is a function of density veil, its penetrability and height of trees. The same veil of wind acting differently in a year, depending on seasons. Thus, trees and shrubs, summer, the leaf had a much lower penetration compared to the months of autumn and early primăvarii when leafless. Network protection act and the microclimatic conditions in winter, by keeping snow and spring, summer and autumn plants by reducing evapotranspirations. At the same time, installing curtains forest is a prerequisite for growth forest. Network of forest belts will actually be a basis for a possible extension of forest in such dry areas that prove to be less favorable and profitable for agricultural use.
 Full version
 
 
ANALYSIS PERIOD AND DURATION OF FREEZING IN SOUTH DOBROGEA AND CONSEQUENCES OF THESE FACTORS ON CROPS
 
Anca-Nicoleta  Albu, Marius  Lungu, Liliana  Panaitescu
„Ovidius”University  Constanta
 
 Abstract: Soil temperature has a strong influence on plant growth and development, the processes taking place is normally only between plant-specific thermal limits, and each phase of vegetation. With falling temperatures below 00C, involved process of freezing, which in some conditions can become harmful to plants cultivate.To prevent the damages from these phenomena, it is necessary to know mainly the types of freezing that can affect crops, the period of freezing, etc. Frosts can occur in three different periods: winter, autumn and spring. Winter frosts called "black frost" causes, in general, less damage to agriculture, since intervening in a dormant period. However, these frosts, have a sensible action on vegetation when a period of several days, the temperature values fall below a threshold lowered. In the same time autumn frosts cut off vegetation cultures by providing  the date of harvesting. In South Dobrogea was analyzed duration and period of freezing, using climate data for a period between 1965-2000, the main weather stations (Constanta, Mangalia, Medgidia, Adamclisi, Harsova). Based on these data, using statistical methods as the frequency and duration, could determine the index of the persistence of freezing that can characterize the degree of harshness of the climate. To calculate the index of thepersistence of freezing in the territory of South Dobrogea werw used multiannual average annual number of days with frost and no frost during the annual interval, resulting lenghth  of days with  frost possible. Thus, one can notice a lower persistence of frost in the Black sea, because of its moderating influence, while in the freezeng high plateau is greater persistence due to thermal inversions. In conclusion, the index of  the persistence of frost can characterize the degree of harshness of the climate particulary for crops. Depending on these results we can see the consequences of these phenomena on crops, but also measures may be taken to prevent damage crops.
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CURRENT TRENDS FOR DEVELOPING AT GLOBAL LEVEL A SUPPLEMENTARY PROTOCOL ON LIABILITY AND REDRESS TO THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY
 
Maria Mihaela Antofie, Camelia Sand
University Lucian Blaga from Sibiu
  
Abstract: Art. 27, entitled Liability and Redress, of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) to the Convention on the Biological Diversity is stating that the Parties should adopt a process with respect to the appropriate elaboration of international rules and procedures in the field of liability and redress for damage resulting from transboundary movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) and shall endeavour to complete this process in four years. As this deadline was not respected due to the very complex process in negotiations globally, the 4th Conference of the Parties (COP) (2008) gives strict instructions to the Ad Hoc Technical and Expert Group on Liability and Redress to negotiate a Draft Supplementary Protocol to be further negotiated and adopted during the COP 5 in October 2010. The operational text to be negotiated is adopted as COP 4 decision. During the last negotiation sessions of the AHTEG (Thailand 8-12 February 2010) the operational text was tabled for discussions and negotiations but no general agreement was attained and discussions included guidelines on civil liability, supplementary compensation scheme and complementary capacity-building measures. Such new items developments are highly depending upon the type of the developed and adopted new regime for the Liability and Redress. Still during the last round negotiation it was agreed to be elaborated a single legally-binding provision on civil liability among the others administrative liability of the new supplementary protocol. In this paper it is discussed, applying the negotiations rules and procedures for using the draft paper submitted for negotiations and some legal implications for Romania as a member state if such a Protocol is adopted. Also the paper discuss the European and Romanian legislation already in force for genetically modified organisms in the field of liability and redress and reveals the next steps in further influence and develop the European legislation.
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DECREASING THE NOISE LEVEL USING RUBBERIZED ASPHALT
 
Vasile  Bacria
”Politehnica” University of Timișoara
  
Abstract: In the context of sustainable development and environmental protection, a special issue is represented by noise generation and propagation in the urban environment. An important contribution at the noise generated by the road transportation means in the urban environment has the noise produced by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface. In this paper we present an investigation of the effects of rubberized asphalt on decreasing the noise produced by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface in the road traffic. This is a very actual problem which concerns also the researchers from USA, Great Britain, Italy, and so on. In our country it is for the first time when these kinds of problems are undertaken. In this paper we investigated the noise generated by the transportation means in the urban environment identifying the sources and the characteristics of the noise generated by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface, the propagation ways, noxious effects and admissible limits. In order to characterize the noise we have accomplished measurements in 62 points located near some of the most important crossings from Timisoara City. The measurements were performed using the Bruel & Kjaer 2237 Controller Integrating Sound Level Meter, the N.L.-20 Sound Level Meter and the Bruel & Kjaer 2250 Hand Held Analyzer. These ones allowed identifying and recording the most important parameters of the noise. The results of measurements were processed, analyzed, interpreted and compared with the admissible values defined by standards. Some methods intended to decrease the noise generated by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface were established and implemented. The effect of the implementation of these measures for decreasing the noise was evaluated through new measurements. In the paper we present a comparison between the situations existing in before and after the implementation of noise decreasing measures. In the same time, taking account that an important contribution to the noise generated by the road transportation has the wheel-road contact, this one can be reduced by covering the road with rubberized asphalt. Using this measure, it is obtained an important decrease of the noise level. This is used also for increasing the traffic safety through eliminating vehicle skidding. Consequently, we have analyzed in the paper the effect of the rubberized asphalt on decreasing the noise in Timisoara City.
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NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOLVING POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN AQUIFERS
 
Mihaela Violeta Bakos
Faculty of Hydrotehnic
 
Abstract: Pollution of aquifers is a major environmental policies worldwide, show numerous international events dedicated to this subject. Remedial and protective measures undertaken are limited, often not reaching the expected efficiency failed due to excessive costs necessary to remedy, because the application of inappropriate methods and technologies as well as relatively long time necessary to remedy the aquifers. Currently we have a specialized unit able to develop and solve an aquifer pollution from its definition to implement remedies. Recent reports show that post that pollution, despite progress made in the field, remains a major reason for concern due to direct discharges, due to indirect discharges through nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, and due to leakage from old or contaminated industrial sites in landfills. Although point sources of pollution have caused most of the pollution identified so far, there are data showing that the diffuse sources have a growing impact on groundwater. For proper pollution problems exist in the aquifer analytical solutions and numerical solutions in this paper we present numerical methods used to solve the problems of contaminated groundwater, and we will give special attention Finite Difference method and Random Walk method. These methods provide a representation in space and time of pollutant concentration. Market appeared many programs for calculating the concentration of pollutants in the aquifer, but are very expensive and require a very good knowledge of the input parameters, an understanding of the phenomenon and the scope of use. We present an example of pollution of aquifers, using the modeling ASMWIN. The process of transport of pollutants in the aquifer it will take into account the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of pollutants, the environment in which they learn the transport of pollutants, the state that is found underground pollutants in the environment: and the processes that control the transport of contaminants in the environment Underground: The main objective pursued in this work is to develop mathematical models to study processes taking place in aquifer pollution. The results obtained may contribute to an overall program evaluation, monitoring and remediation of aquifers that are in line with the main trends and orientations in the field of protection of groundwater resources on a European and global.
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IMPACT OF GEODETIC STUDIES AND MEASUREMENTS ON PRESERVATION AND
REABILITATION OF FORESTRY HERITAGE
 
Alina Corina Bălă, Floarea-Maria Brebu, Carmen Grecea
”Politehnica” University of Timișoara
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
      
Abstract: The policy regarding environment preservation, as a relationship of mankind with nature, has changed in time, as on the awareness of the anthropic activities, with irreversible effects and with dramatic consequences on the modified natural environment. The limit between the agricultural lands and the forestry zones will be modified on the benefit of the agricultural lands and grazing lands, firstly, because of the demographic pressure. Another cause of national and global modifications represents the abusive use of forest lands. Topographic and cadastral measurements have a special importance in the environmental protection research, especially for monitoring the effects of nature’s geometrical modifications. There are also evaluated the effects of anthropic modifications on the environment. All forest sectors directly related to field data cannot operate without detailed maps of the specific area. Currently, most forest plans were made in Romania over 15 years old and no longer correspond to any reality from the field. Evolution and rapid development of surveying technology has led to these graphical products and other data necessary for a complete forest planning and its efficient management. In the paper it is presented a study case related to Savârșin forest area, Arad county, as a boundary project using GPS technology and also satellite photograms for future 3D modelling of forested territories. The large use of the automatically tools of measurement and processing, the elaboration of digital plans and maps lead to modern land management system which can face the present request from this field of activity. The applicability of the informational systems will last a long period of time, while both categories of classic and digital materials will operate. During all this period, the technical equipment for data collection, processing, storage and overview will continue developing, in order to accelerate the complex project of informational systems achievement.Key words: surveying, GPS, satellite photogram, detailed map, environment, 3D modelling.
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BY GIS
                                      
A. Băneș, Manuela-Dora Orboi, A. Monea, Mirela Monea
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts, the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.  Sustainable development is maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future generations depend. GIS organizes geographic data so that a person reading a map can select data necessary for a specific project or task. GIS can be an important tool for helping people map out plans for successfully achieving management strategies that are sustainable both at local and global levels. A good GIS program is able to process geographic data from a variety of sources and integrate it into a map project. Many countries, except ours, have an abundance of geographic data for analysis. GIS is key tool used in assessment, prioritization, mitigation, planning, science and training. Economic inequality, social instability and environmental degradation are common features of unsustainable development. Poor people bear the brunt of these problems because their livelihoods are precariously balanced on volatile economic opportunities and environments vulnerable to change. What we need is a national strategie for sustainable development (strategic and participatory process of analysis, debate, capacity strengthening, planning and action towards sustainable development), a tool to assist the farmers in overcoming their problems and start to strengthen their capacity for sustainable development. Using GIS in sustainable agriculture can lead to great benefits, especially for how they can be seen all the cultures they represent, the soil which are substances in the soil, availability of water, crop rotation, pests.
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CONVERTING FROM CONVENTIONAL TO ORGANIC VITICULTURE IN MINIS-MADERAT VINEYARD
 
Eva Băra, Florentina Simona Barbu
“Aurel Vlaicu” University from Arad
  
Abstract: Organic viticulture in our country is at the beginning, observing vine technology is currently growing a very large number of synthetic chemicals: fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers. However all these substances undo even the concept of organic viticulture. Without soil protection, vines can not provide healthy wines and grapes, organic quality. Active biological control of soil favors a balanced nutrition, rich in humus and mineral elements required for the plants development. Knowing the results of using synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides it is necessary to know, through mass media, enough of the soil protection laws. In EU countries this protection laws were well highlighted and firmly applied. Converting from conventional viticulture to organic viticulture is a dynamic process of creating a sustainable and self-regulating system. This issue is implemented within a longer or shorter period of time, depending on the preexisting chemicalization degree, on the soil pollution, the degree of attack on disease, pests, weed infestation, training and environmental awareness of farmers. The period from year zero until the obtaining of accreditation authorization is called the conversion period which lasts for about 5 years in viticulture, being carried out in 2-3 stages. This is called conversion step by step. It is necessary to underline that organic viticulture achieves lower yields compared to current conventional production system, which generates higher production costs. In compensation to organic wine products, they may be sold with a price 35-45% higher than the other conventional wine products, thus becoming more profitable. Romania’s integration into European Community structures requires adaptation of vine-wine production in our country to the best current quality standards as organic products. Measures have an important role: a rational fertilization of plantations, avoiding nitrogen excess which causes raising vine diseases and pests attack, avoiding deficiencies or excess of potassium, making timely tillage, eliminating by the work in green, of many sources of infection, determining the elements of forecasting and warning based on economic pest thresholds. Benefits of alternatives for biological control of pests and diseases are: it is avoided the use of polluting products, the use of low phytotoxicity products, obtaining crops without chemical treatments, prevention of resistance to pesticides, ensuring human and other creatures health by using cleaner control methods. 
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ORGANIC FARMING, A CHANCE FOR ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE
 
Florentina Simona Barbu, Eva Băra
“Aurel Vlaicu” University  from Arad
 
Abstract: Organic farming is an industry emerging economies around the world, a trend due to the general public awareness of the negative effects due to intensive agriculture performing, both upon human health and continue environmental degradation. Organic farming, which does not mean the way back to traditional subsistence farming,  is emerging today as a great hope for post-industrial progress of mankind. In a world where agriculture has become rather a source of income than a food resource, repairing the serious imbalance caused by super intensive  agricultural systems based on excessive chemicalization mandates the adoption of new strategies to protect natural resources, land, plants and humans against pollution and continuous degradation. The mirage of super industrialized agriculture, reflected in the impressive crop yields incredibly large, is about to collapse as life proves that this type of farming does not guarantee food safety and human welfare over time. As a result of growing a small number of varieties of abandoning crop rotation systems, of excessive or uncontrolled irrigation, of the abuse of chemicals that have polluted soil and waters and employing biological stimulators, today we are witnessing a process of soil degradation threatening human capacity of ensuring food for future generations. This danger, highlighted decades ago, today is expressed by the depletion of natural fertility of soil, by the rapid advance of desertification process, with chronic social consequences, especiallyon the long run. It is important that by the advanced chemicalization new diseases and pests have appeared, resistant to treatments applied. In turn, biotechnology or genetic engineering could only temporarily solve the great problems of mankind, for nature has produced new more resistant and more destructive varieties. Organic farming fully meets sustainability objectives, it contributes to sustainable development and to the production of high quality and healthy products, and implements sustainable production methods in terms of environment. Contribution of organic agriculture sector is growing in most Member States of the European Union and worldwide. In this context, it is necessary for organic production to play an increasingly greater role in agricultural policy and to be closely related to development of agricultural markets as well as to the protection and conservation of lands meant for agricultural activities. Organic farming plays an important role in implementing the Community's sustainable development policy. Organic farming can contribute to the ultimate goal of sustainability.
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TOPOGRAPHICAL-CADASTRAL MEASUREMENTS NECESSARY FOR THE EXECUTION OF SEWAGE SYSTEM IN JENA VILLAGE, TIMIS COUNTY, ROMANIA
 
Luminița Livia Bârliba1, I. Nemeș 2, C. Bârliba 1, G. Eleș 2
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
2Politechnica University of Timisoara, Romania
  
Abstract: The paper is based on results of a land survey to modernize it according to E. U. requirements the work was performed in JENA, TIMIȘ County. This paper is prepared by the methodology in force, performing topographical-cadastral works necessary for the execution of sewage system in Jena village, Timis County, Romania on 2936.00 m length. In this context, what we have studied in our paper is the influence of topography on the rural areas, the way it is applied in these areas, and implicitly its influence on regional development.  The stages of the land survey were as follows: - Support survey network, made of the points in the national survey network which stood at the basis of our land measurements; - Determination of the survey network, consisting of all the traversing posts; - Actual planimetric or leveling survey, by determining the position of the characteristic points that define the details of the area. The precision which has to be accounted for, in other words the maximum admitted errors in determining the coordinates of the points found on the contour of the details is of ±15 cm in flat open country. Topographical field works were conducted with total station Leica TC 805 by polygonal course process using the Romanian national geodetic system - Stereographic Projection 1970. Data processing was performed with post-processing software and specific programs of work - TOPOSYS, AUTOCAD. For the preparation of documentation, after the measurements, the data stored in electronic memory of tachymeter - Total Station Leica TC 805 were transferred to the computer memory. Leveling points were determined by polygonal course for geometrical levelling. Processing of surveying measurements was performed with the software TOPOSYS.
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PROJECT FOR IDENTIFICATION AND MEASURING A FOREST AREA SITUATED INTO THE ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORY OF GIROC, TIMIS COUNTY
 
Luminița Livia Bârliba1, I. Nemeș 2, C. Bârliba 1, G. Eleș 2
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
2Politechnica University of Timisoara, Romania
  
Abstract: The forest as main fighting element against soil degradation and pollution is the larger gift that nature could offers to the human being, continuing to be a great miracle even for the greatest specialists. A modern democracy, cannot be consolidate without having the private propriety as main background which is the result of hard work and life saving, due to which the main goal of the human being is to improve its life conditions. The paper shows up a technical documentation for measuring and identification of forest situated on administrative territory of GIROC, TIMIS county. The purpose of the paper consist in registering the forest area into the Land Register Book according to the owners name by applying the 247/2005 law. The whole area is covered by forest vegetation. The 61.90 ha of oak forest, is having a medium density of 4m, the trees height is around 12 m, and the average thick is 0.25m. The forest is situated nearby Timiseni Monastery at the territorial administrative boundary between Sag and Giroc district. The work beneficiary: Timisoara Archbishopric, Saraca Monastery. The work purpose: consist in identification and field measurements in order to land register the woods  parcels Pd420, Pd425, Pd425, Pd411, Pd407, Pd408 in the Timisoara Archbishopric propriety, on the territorial administrative territory of Giroc. Concerning the juridical situation of the propriety, for the moment this is part of the Committee of Propriety Laws for the propriety restitutions, of Giroc Council, Timis County. The topographical field measurements were achieved by using TRIMBLE 5503 DR total station. The projecting system used is Stereografic 70 projecting system. The data acquired by the field measurements, was processed by GEOTOP- Odorheiu Secuiesc software, TOPOSYS 5.1.
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SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE NECESSITY OF IMPLEMENTING THE AGRICULTURAL LAND CONSOLIDATION PROJECTS IN ROMANIA
 
A. Blenesi
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: Agriculture remains a significant sector of the Romanian economy in terms of area, contribution to the GDP and in particular share in the total employment. Romania’s total area is 14.8 million hectares, out of which 9.4 million is arable land, accounting 63% of total agricultural area. Agriculture accounts 13% of Romania’s GDP and its share in employment remains excessively high (38%) with negative consequences for farm productivity and rural incomes. The way chosen by Romania to give back collective land (i.e. land that belonged previously to agricultural production cooperatives) resulted in a highly fragmented ownership pattern. Privatization and redistribution of agriculture land has involved more than 5 million people, fragmenting land-ownership and causing the average farm size to fall to less than 3 ha. Farms are, moreover, divided into 4 or 5 separate parcels. As a consequence Romania’s farming sector a polarized structure in land operation emerged and developed: on one hand a large number of small peasant household farms, and on the other hand a relatively low number of large-sized farms, organized according to private holdings principles. In between, there has been a yet relatively thin layer of individual agricultural holdings that have a production potential and orientation of economic activity quite similar to those of the family farms in the EU Member States. The ability of the Romanian agricultural and rural sectors to cope with the competitive pressures in an enlarged single market will also be dependent upon the quality of decision making in mitigating the effects of land fragmentation, which should be part of a wider and more comprehensive rural development policy. Thus, in an optimistic evaluation only a little more than 6% of total individual agricultural holdings from Romania could be compared with the family farms in the EU countries. This figure is quite relevant and does not impose additional comments on the efficiency of land resources allocation to the largest part of agricultural producers from our country. We should highlight here once again the need to accelerate the process of land consolidation into viable farms, able to face the competition in the European Union. In the same time appears an immediate benefit for the improvement of the agricultural property structure and ownership, less fragmented and adequately equipped with rural and agricultural infrastructure.
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NEW FINANCIAL MECHANISM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES
 
Vanina Adoriana  Boglea,  Mihaela Ioana  Iacob
“Aurel Vlaicu”University from  Arad
 
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of using fiscal policy as a key to a more sustainable development. Sustainable development is the concept of maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future generations depend. One of the methods already put into practice by some of the developed countries, which could be a saving solution for improving the environmental quality, is the fiscal policy, guided in this respect.The development of environmental tax revenue is currently subject to opposite forces; on the one hand, policymakers give high priority to environmental protection, a trend which may grow even stronger as attention focuses on the threat from global warning; on the other, greater reliance on policy instruments other than taxes, such as emissions trading, and growing political pressure to accommodate the strong increases in the oil price recorded in the last few years by reducing taxation of energy. Environmental taxes can be divided into three categories: energy taxes, transport taxes (taxes on vehicles) and pollution/resources taxes. These belong to the category of indirect taxes or consumption taxes. Environmental taxes are not a significant percentage of GDP in most EU countries. In 2007, revenues from environmental taxes in the EU-27 accounted for 2,5 % of GDP and for 6,2 % of total revenues.The role of environmental taxes remains one marginal in most EU Member States. However, some Member States, like Denmark and The Netherlands achieved significant share of environmental tax in relation to GDP. I consider that as the environmental taxes are concerned, the evolution registered in the European Union, has not yet reached the desired results. Therefore, the effects of taxation in the European Union, regarding environmental protection cannot be assessed as satisfactory. There are therefore necessary the community’s efforts in this respect, from overcoming the dialogue state and adopting measurements that are accepted by all member states.
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THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY AT MAIZE IN CLASSIC AND NO-TILL SYSTEMS IN CONDITION OF ARAD AREA
 
I. Borza,  I. Gaica,  D. Dicu
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: The study was performed in conditions of the year 2009 on a mollic preluvosoil (SRTS 2003) in maize culture cultivated in classic and no-till systems. The energetic efficiency is quantified using two indicators: the energetic efficiency and the energetic balance. Following the energetical transformations made on equivalent basis, there was a report calculation between invested and obtained energy in agrosistem. Having a report between energy found in the main agricultural product – output – and energy invested in the ecosistem – input – determine energetic cost of every calory witin this product or conversion efficiency of energy invested.The energetic efficiency must be one of the main directions of economical restructuration in agriculture because assures production competitivity, takes environment protection into account and diminishes dependence from imported energy, mostly regarding fossiliyed fuels. The analysis effectuated over some agricultural crops of economical remarkable importance shows that after the use of particular technology based on mechanisation and high fertiliyation; the best efficiency was obtained to maise. The solar energy is not the only energetic input at plant disposal of agricultural importance. It is considered to be the most important and by all means it is free. the others inputs categories (soil preparation, sowing, fertilisation, phytosanitary treatments, etc.) require expulse which grow faster, from year to year, than biological-alimentary energy obtained by agricultural crops. For energetic analysis an important indicator is the structure of energy consumption. This has direct actively energy consumption (fuel, thermic energy, electrical energy), indirect actively  energy consumption (manure, pesticide, seed) and passive energy consumption (tractors and agricultural vehicles) as main elements of consumption. After the report accompolishment between energetic impust and output it has been shown that some energy units can be obtained for a consumed energy unit.
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ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SUGAR SECTOR IN SERBIA
 
Dragica G. BoŸiæ , M.  Petar,  Natalija  Munæan,  Lj. Bogdanov
Faculty of Agriculture, Serbia
 
Abstract: Serbia belongs to countries whose economic structure of agriculture has a high importance (the share of agriculture in the total population is 10.9%, the share in GDP from about 10%, and if you include food industry about 17%, while the share of exports is about 20%). In addition to major natural resources, Serbia has significant food industry capacities as well. In the field crop production structure of Serbia, besides cereals, the share of industrial crops predominates: sugar beet, sunflower and soybean. Sugar beet-growing areas amount to about 65 thousand hectares, and they produce about 3 million tons of sugar beet, whereas   sugar plant capacities produce about 400 thousand tons of sugar. Since the 2000-ths, sugar became one of the most important export product of Serbia (primarily due to EU countries export and Autonomous Trade Measures-ATM). The study focused on some major economic characteristics of the sugar production sector in Serbia during the period 2000-2008, displaying the basic indicators of the importance of this sector in the economic development of Serbia, i.e. the share of GDP, employment and total exports. Economic efficiency of sugar beet production on family farms of Serbia and its competitiveness in relation to some other important field crops was analyzed as well. The main data source was a publication of the Republic Institute for Statistics. The analysis of the economic efficiency of sugar beet production was based on gross margin calculations using elements sampled in a survey. The survey was conducted on 50 selected family farms involved in field crop production only.
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THE SITUATION OF PROTECTED AREAS IN THE COUNTY OF ARAD. OAK FOREST NATURAL RESERVE FLUFFY FROM CĂRAND
 
Ruben Budău
Oradea University
  
Abstract: The paper shows the current situation of the protected areas from Arad county with the exemplification of the Natural reservation the Forrest of dense oak from Cărand. One insists on the role of the protected area, of the management objectives and its particularities, one analyzes the problems from the reservation area, the current status of conservation and one proposes a series of actions for the keeping of the biologic biodiversity under optimal conditions and the carrying out of the main management objectives. The Natural Reservation the Forrest of Dense Oak from Cărand is located in Arad county, on the area of the commune Beliu, in the forestry fund administered by the Private Forrest Division Dumbrava, within Base Unit IV Cărand. The access in the reservation is made from the county road DJ 793 Sintea Mare – Chisindia, after the place of Seliște, within the parcel limits between landscaping units 37 and 38. According to the UICN classification, the Natural Reservation the Forrest of Dense Oak from Cărand has a surface of 2,1 hectars and corresponds to the category IV IUCN namely: area for management of the habitats especially for the conservation by means of management interventions. The Natural Reservation the Forrest of Dense Oak from Cărand has as purpose the conservation of the existing brush of dense oak and this is based on the stipulation of the Law no. 426/18.07.2001, art.5 paragraph 2 and Annex 1, for the approval of the Government’s Emergency Order no. 236/2000 regarding the conditions of the protected natural areas, the conservation of the natural habitats, of the wild flora and fauna. The aspect of a natural reservation is extremely important due to the species found as well as due to the geographic location. The presence of the reservation constitutes an opportunity for the promotion of the area for tourist purposes, the drawing of financings by means of programs of durable development and for the development of some economic activities. The statute of natural reservation respectively of managed area for the conservation and protection of the biodiversity imposes the importance of the conservation of the biodiversity and landscape, of the necessity for durable use of the natural resources and for the imperative of finding the balance between the human activities and nature in its entirety.
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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS TO RURAL EMPLOYMENT IN NON-AGRICULTURAL SECTORS OF THE LABOR MARKET
 
D. Bușe Florian, D. Goldan Tudor, D. Bușe Gheorghe-Florin
University of Petrosani
 
Abstract: The paper presents aspects of implementing effective professional training programs to develop the labor market by supporting the non-agricultural activities and attracting the people in the rural area. The performed legal and organizational procedures targeted: creation of the logistics of the project activities – location, persons; providing the resources to organize classes in every macro-region – logistics, facilities; providing the information portal about the project – web site design. The importance of the paper is regarded by to increased rural employment and labor market participation rate on non-agricultural activities. There were used the European Labor Employment Strategy and the National Strategies where we find the principles and the key areas for employment, with more implications towards the people from rural communities. The research project aims the dimensions, the priority action areas for the employment of the existing national and European Union strategies. The training programs support the following activities: project manager, tourism administrator and worker, sales agent, trading worker, fitter of board walls and ceilings, water plumber. The research included statistical analysis of the rural occupational and non-agricultural occupational structure from 4 pilot areas, corresponding to 4 macro-regions. The project is developed by the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest in partnership with various research institutions and other universities in Romania. The University of Petrosani, as partner, set up the rural professional training center. The training center benefits from the experience of the university specialists. The facilities in the university represent the guaranty for performance training. The use of the training programs consists in: occupations, for which these courses are organized, are frequently required in the labor market in Romania; courses are conducted by experienced specialists, the accumulation of knowledge is done through practical applications and case studies; courses are accessible to people who want to grow professionally as part of the target group. The project represented in the paper is called “The development of the labor market by promoting the non-agricultural occupations in rural areas”, European Social Funds, Sector Operational Program: Human Resource Development (POS DRU) CCI 2007RO051PO001.
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ASPECTS CONCERNING MODELING OF THE AIR POLLUTANTS DISPERSION
 
Gilda-Diana Buzatu
University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture
                  
Abstract: European directives on ambient air quality enter for the first time in Europe the concept of modeling in air quality assessment and management. Modeling of air quality management improves efficiency of the air quality management. By modeling, you can identify the contribution of various categories of sources to overcome the limits. Another major advantage of the use of modeling air pollutants in air quality management and evaluation is to improve capability to represent the spatial distribution of concentrations of pollutants, with effect from regional scale to local scale, even at the level of cities and streets. Furthermore, modeling will contribute to compliance or non-compliance to the quality objectives set by legislation while helping to identify areas where limits are exceeded. Impact assessment of air quality due the operation activities belonging to S.E. Craiova II was performed by mathematical modeling, the results reference to limits set by Order of the Minister of Water and Environmental Protection no. 592/2002 for approving the Norms on setting limits, the threshold values and criteria and methods of assessment of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, lead, benzene, carbon monoxide and ozone in ambient air, supplemented by the Order of the Minister of Environment and Water Management no. 27/2007. To calculate the dispersion of gaseous and particulate pollutants discharged into the atmosphere we used a specialized program called SIMGP v.4 developed under Visual Basic platform after the complete theory of the American model ISC3 (Sources Industrial Complex Models). The selection model is an important issue as there is no dispersion model recommended. Each model used should meet the needs of the particular analyzed case. Hundreds of models are available, and differences between their complexity and capacity to meet distinct physical or chemical processes in the atmosphere are evident. In this view, in this paper we will attempt a study of modeling the dispersion of pollutants at local level which will focus on assessing the impact on air quality resulting from emissions sources associated with the activities of the S.E. Craiova II, and quantify the impact that some air pollutants are having on the viticultural agroecosystems from the Dealurile Craiovei area by calculating the probabilities of exceeded maximum allowable concentrations for 30 minutes.
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MODEL PROJECT FOR REHABILITATION, REFURBISHMENT AND ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LANDS IN NAMOLOASA – MAXINENI RECLAIMED UNIT
 
Severin Cazanescu, Florica Mardare, Carmen Necula
INCDIF-ISPIF Bucuresti
  
Abstract: The prolonged droughts followed by floods, as result of climate changes, have a significant impact on agricultural production and on food safety. In such conditions, land reclamation works are vital, providing solutions for risks mitigation. In Romania, during the restructuring and reform process of agriculture, including the land reclamation sector, an important part of the existent infrastructure either couldn’t be adapted and was abandoned or remained unused as inadequate  to the new structures.  In such circumstances, the land reclamation works need to be rehabilitated and modernize in order to improve their performances and to reduce the operation costs. The paper presents a model project for the rehabilitation and worth of the hydro-ameliorative facilities in the Low Siret Plain. The following activities were performed in the project frame: estimation of the agro-productive potential of the climate, soil and water resources in the area; inventory and analyze of the existent land reclamation works and their impact on the environment; identification of the affected lands by different forms of degradation, risk evaluation and proposal of counteraction measures and ecological reconstruction. The methods and materials used were: soil maps, geo-morphological maps, analytic data regarding soil properties and groundwater chemistry, climatic data, on-site analysis. The research study is concluded with proposed works to be adopted, such as: -   rehabilitation of the defense dams of the precinct, drainage networks, irrigation; systems and related pumping stations; salted lands improvement; area landscaping for specific crops to obtain renewable energy sources. The paper importance is found in the National Plan for Rural Development, Priority Axis 1, Measure 125 a – “Infrastructure improvement and development connected with agricultural development and adaptation”, operational objective - Modernization and / or refurbishment of the irrigation systems and other land reclamation works.  The project was performed in the frame of the Research – Development Sector Plan of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
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MODERN TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL LEVELLING, BASED ON A 3D SCANNER
 
Severin Cazanescu, Doru Mihai, Radu Mudura
USAMV – FIFIM, Bucuresti
  
Abstract: Soil levelling becomes of high importance, in modern and intensive agriculture conditions. Its effects are found in providing optimal and equal conditions to the crops, during yielding and growing. In areas with water excess, the soil levelling provides an appropriate water runoff, ensuring a better water management. The levelling works design is based on land surveying performed for surface units (parcels) which are going to be ameliorated. Based on the survey plans, the following issues are settled: the alignments which need levelling and the necessary optimal slopes from the efficient runoff point of view; the areas of digging/filling, depending on optimal slopes, to minimize the volume and transport distance of the ground. The calculations are performed using “Least-squares method” or other approximate methods. Unfortunately, the use of these methods needs long time and their accuracy and effectiveness are limited. The paper presents a more effective technology to carry out levelling works, which is based on the newest technology used in environmental engineering. The method is tested in Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering Faculty, in Bucharest and consists in using the following 3 elements of high novelty: replacement of the classical survey with modern scanning methods using LASER technology devices; use of modern GIS applications, developed by ESRI International, for data processing, combined with efficient CAD applications, developed by Autodesk Inc., world widely utilized; generation of a 3D model, based on the information collected and processed in accordance with the above mentioned steps. The model is then sent to dirt mover machine, by the aid of an operating device, using LASER technology. This way, the dirt mover machine can model the land with high accuracy, low costs and minimum fuel consumption.   
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SUSTENABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF MAȘLOC VILLAGE, TIMIȘ COUNTY
 
Laura Constantinescu, Adia Grozav, Iacob Nemeș
“Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Faculty of Hydrotechnical Engineering
 
Abstract: The concept of sustainable rural development refers to forms and methods of socio-economic development of which base it is to ensure a balance between socio-economic systems and environmental. One element of Mașloc village development, in addition to programs contained in the Development Strategy of Timiș County (DJ691 county road rehabilitation, water supply, founding a center for children with special educational needs, rehabilitation of school with grades 1-8), was the execution of one construction of MOBILROM in village. The paper presents data geotechnical study, which is the necessary base to design any building, being part of the technical documentation necessary to authorizing execution of construction works under the Law no. 50/29.07.1991, on the approval of execution of construction works.  Geotechnical investigation purpose is to providing information necessary of a relevant and economic design of construction works, adding these elements: the sequence of geological layers that form the foundation soil and their physical and mechanical parameters in the content of the active area of foundations; alert to special conditions of the site or difficult foundation soil; the hydrogeology conditions, establishing parameters of seismicity and the depth of freezing of the area investigated, determining geotechnical category of work, recommendations on the design and execution of the building, conditioned by the characteristics of foundation soil. Steps taken in carrying out geotechnical study are: documentation, recognition site and determining the need for prospecting work; prospecting land by surveys/geotechnical drilling, sampling of disturbed and undisturbed soil, water sampling, dynamic penetration survey execution; analysis of soil samples taken in the field within the analysis soil and geotechnical laboratories to determine the physical and mechanical parameters; geotechnical development (documentation, field and laboratory data processing, conclusions) and verify the strength and stability of foundation soils and the occurrence of land.In the laboratory were made the following determinations: - granulometric composition; - density; - volumetric weight; - humidity; - limits of plasticity; - edometrica compressibility method; - consolidation of land; - resistance to direct shear; - characteristics of compaction - an attempt Proctor. Physical properties of soils are determined according to the methodology of soil studies development and mechanical properties according to norm NP 074/2007.
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ASPECTS REGARDING THE NATIONAL STRATEGY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN REGION 5 WEST ROMANIA
 
Ioana-Alina Costescu
Politehnica University of Timișoara, Hydrotechnical Engineering Faculty
  
Abstract: In 2005, after a long debate, the European Committee has adopted a revised proposal of the Goteborg Strategy from the year 2001. As a result of this process, the European Union Council has adopted on June 9th 2006 the Renewed Strategy of Sustainable Development for an extended Europe. To achieve these goals four key objectives were identified: - Environment protection, through measures that will allow separation of economical growth from negative impact over the environment; - Equity and social cohesion respecting fundamental rights, cultural diversity, chance equality and fighting any type discrimination; - Economical prosperity, promoting knowledge, innovation and competitive to assure high life standards and abundant and well paid jobs; - Fulfilling international responsibility of UE promoting democratic institution for peace, security and freedom, principles and practices for sustainable development all over the world. In the context of the decisions made by the European Union Council, the national Strategy seeks achieving the following strategically objectives on short, medium and long term: Horizon 2013: organically integration of the principles and practices on sustainable development in the Romanian ensemble of programs and regulation as European Union member. Horizon 2020: reaching the actual medium level of European Union countries regarding the main indicators of sustainable development. Horizon 2030: significant approaching to that year medium level of the European Union members by Romania regarding the sustainable development directives. For each one of this period of 7 years and the appropriated horizons are settled and debated a series of situations with practical objectives among the most important, are: - Climatic changes and clean energy;  - Sustainable transport;   - Production and sustainable consumption; - Conservation and management of natural resources; - Public health; - Social inclusion, demography and migration; - Rural development, agriculture and fishing. The aim of this paper is to establish how are this objectives reached and what measures are used to reached the established Horizons in the Region 5 West Romania.  Region 5 Vest is located in the western part of Romania at the Hungarian and Serbia&Muntenegru border and it contains four counties: Arad, Caraș-Severin, Hunedoara and Timiș. Region 5 Vest has the following extreme points: the southern extremity of the region is located in the Berzasca locality, Caraș-Severin - 44º35'12" Nordic latitude, the northern extremity in Berechiu locality, Arad - 46º38' Nordic latitude, the western extremity in Beba Veche locality, Timiș - 20°15' easterly longitude, and the southern extremity near the Petroșani locality, Hunedoara - 23º easterly longitude. The region has a surface that totalize 32.034 km2, representing 13,44% of Roamanian territory. Timiș County is as surface the largest in our country (3,65% of national territory), while Caraș-Severin county is in third place (3,56% of national territory), Arad county, is the sixth (3,25% of national territory) and Hunedoara county occupies 2,96% from our country territory.
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CLAYEY MINERALS FROM BANAT SOILS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN
SUSTAINABLE AGRO-ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
 
Constantin Crăciun,  Marius Eftene, Victoria Mocanu,  Dorin Țărău
National RD Institute for Soil Science,
Agrochemistry and Environmental Protection - ICPA, Bucharest
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: Sustainable management of soils involved, where farmland and forest management, taking into account the cycles and flows of information, energy and matter between soils and other spheres of the natural environment (atmosphere, rivers, vegetation and fauna, etc.). Sustainable management of natural and anthropogenically induced resources is a modern form of land management, with the mission of maintaining and enhancing soil fertility and to enable long-term achievement of high quality food production.  The addressed issues is relating to an area of 17216641 ha of which 1098520 ha of agricultural land, belonging to the Timiș and Caraș-Severin countys. The examination of ecopedological conditions, were setting in order and processing dates were made according to „ The Pedological Studies Elaboration Methodology “, (vol. I,II,III) of ICPA Bucharest, in 1987 and Romanian Taxonomic System of Soils (SRTS-2003). The soil, as a basic component of terrestrial ecology, has a number of properties that have served and serve both to specify the genetic classification and parametric entities and for the definition of agricultural practices. As part of the soil, the clay play an important role in setting out the relationship between certain physical and chemical soil attributes and between them and the creatures that inhabit them. The research made in recent years by the group of authors represents an attempt to present certain aspects concerning the relationship between mineralogical components and the soil quality or soil health. Given these considerations, in this paper will be considered some aspects concerning the mineralogical substrate share on the Banat soils. Although soil genesis processes can essentially change the original characteristics of the parental materials, the composition of their size still further to influence and even determine soil texture. In close correlation with the variety of geomorphological factors who are determining the existence of diversified relief units, those geological and litological who are leading to a diversity of parental materials and rock on wich  the soil are evolve, climatic and hidrological  factors and the various human interventions, have result a large population of soil with specific characteristics (related or totally different between them), constantly evolving. The research made is falling on the line to develop an sustainable agricultural system, responding to local requirements for establishing a scientific database necessary for the development of technology and measures of agroecosystems integrated management, the protection and conservation of environment.
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ASPECTS OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY COMBINED THICKENING NETWORK OF SUPPORT IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR, IN HARDWOODS FOREST STANDS
 
Gh. C.  Crainic,  V. L. Damian
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Oradea, Romania
 
Abstract: Achieving development support network in the forestry sector presents a number of features due to working conditions. Modern technologies in the sector requires a number of ground measurements of working conditions, which in the forest sector often can not be achieved only partially. Obtaining accuracy of various works carried out in the forest sector may be influenced by the technologies of specialized programs that work and post-processing calculation. One possibility to achieve works of stuff network support in the forestry sector is represented by the use of combined technologies, depending on their technical requirements and that the working conditions on the ground. GNSS and conventional technologies now provide the logistics sector land measurements. Programs for work can provide a number of advantages even in the particular situation of working, that when visibility is reduced or the signals received by GPS receivers can be affected by a number of perturbation factors. Hyper-specialized software  working methods used in technological processes benefits from a number of possibilities to optimize the results, obtaining results that are characterized by accuracy within the tolerances proposed technical standards. A method which can be successfully used for thickening and support network to achieve network that lifting the details of the forestry sector is the intersection of linear limit, a generic method called free station. By applying this method will determine the spatial coordinates of a new point that will be stationed with total station and which will cover at least two points whose coordinates were determined with GNSS technology. The flexibility of this method is that the points determined by GNSS technology can be placed conveniently in terms of technical conditions claimed by this technology. In the case study were analyzed a series of points whose spatial coordinates were determined with more modern technology work to assess the efficiency of the method with the Free Station. The results obtained in this case study recommends working method analysis to determine points of stuff network support and network that lifting the details of the forestry sector.
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TRAVERSE WITH INDEPENDENT STATIONS - A METHOD FOR LIFTING DETAILS ON CONDITIONS OF WORK IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR
 
Gh. C.  Crainic,  V. L. Damian
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Oradea, Romania
  
Abstract: Determining details of the forestry sector in many cases is a very difficult problem considering the Structural-functional peculiarities of forest stands with direct implications on the technical conditions imposed by modern technology used to determine the spatial coordinates of characteristic points. As a result, mutual visibility is affected consider giving different characteristic points of the structural-functional features of forest stands and obviously of vegetation season. To achieve the various skills involved in forestry projects (design and installation of trasnsport drawing, designing and building hydro drawing, design and drawing compartment line, etc..) Can be successfully applied traverse method with independent stations in order to determine coordinates of points characteristic. This method is based on targeting of points that are visible from the stations between which there is mutual visibility. Of stations considered necessary to be able to cover a sufficient number of points determined in the reference for calculating the official post-processing algorithm based on successive transformations of coordinates corresponding points in different system of reference, finally obtaining the coordinates in national reference system. The analysis of results for this case study follows a series of features on how the location of control points on the surface of high points which can be used to optimize the working method according to the particular land. Control points used for case study were determined with modern technology that GNSS technology, conventional technology and technology combined, the results obtained are directly conditioned by the precision of determining the control points and that their location within the work area. The calculation algorithm, based on coordinates’ translation, does not provide an accurate positioning for the new points. As a consequence the accuracy of transformation parameters will be taken into account in order to assess precision. A series of points, which were previously calculated by the intermediate of modern technologies (GNSS and TS), will be re-calculated. The working method is efficient in the case of relative plane plots of land, a minimum number of four points being required, arranged in the corners of the working surface.   
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AN EVALUATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA
 
Luiela - Magdalena Csorba, Ramona Lile
"Aurel Vlaicu"University  Arad
  
Abstract: Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment, so that this needs can be met not only in the present, but also for the future generation. Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. Sustainable development does not only focus on environmental issues. The United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document refers to the "interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars" of sustainable development as economic development, social development, and environmental protection The present paper analyses a sector application of this concept: sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism development includes a set of heading principles. In implementing these principles, the reduction of the negative effects of tourism is needed. To include tourism in a sustainable approach, a few essential objectives must be attained. To reach these objectives, a link between tourism and other economical fields is needed, because tourism is a sector which has a lot of direct and indirect influences. That way, sustainable development of tourism means a permanent and continuous equilibrium between tourism development and environment protection. The sustainable tourism objectives in Romania covers: the diversification of the tourist services and their alignment to the international quality standards, the exploitation of each region potential, the arrangement of touristic and leisure zones, the promotion of both: urban and agro-tourism, the implementation of eco-tourism concept, training of the personnel engaged, new employment possibilities, the protection and conservation of the cultural and historical patrimony of each region, a good promotion of the touristical potential. Protection and preservation of the touristical potential - in the sustainable development view - is a distinctive activity, with specific issues, which requires the contribution of the specialists form various domains. The strategies used may have a satisfactory efficiency just when they assure a proper legal and administrative framework, which implies a good administrative organization, efficient economic resources, an efficient legislative support and a permanent civic education. In Romania, they are not necessary just simple investments in tourism, because it is also needed a marketing which may underline the opportunities of our country.
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WAYS TO ACHIEVING A SPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (SIS) FOR THE FORESTRY SECTOR BY USING OF MAPSYS 8.0 PROGRAMME
 
Vasilica Laura Damian, Gh. C.Crainic
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Oradea, Romania
  
Abstract: The design of spatial information system represents nowadays an issue for a series of sectors of practical application fields where some spatial data linked to the activities deployed are being used. As a consequence, in the case of forestry sector, the implementation of the information sector is imperiously required taking into account the specificity of the deployed activities. Modern positioning technologies of different characteristic points as well as the cartographic products in digital format provides for a complex and differentiated exploiting of the data collected in this manner. The use of ortho-photographic plan in forestry sector represents a mean of collecting data (the so-called raster data) which are very important for the characteristics of deployed activities. Moreover, the forestry maps and forest arrangements can provide important information as regards the stand (forests) specificity required in growing stock’s careful management activities. The design of a complex database requires that field data be accurate and mirrors the objective reality on the ground. Achieving this goal supposes input data checking within the IT system, on the ground, while the potential shortcomings will be adjusted accordingly. Data processing in order to complete the design of the information systems require the use of some very specialised and dedicated software which will accomplish the specific points’ spatial positioning and reporting, as well as the data base completion. The study case carried out within the Siniob U.P.I., Sacuieni Forest Range Canton, Bihor County Forestry Directorate. For the study case was used the MapSys 8.0 programme. The data were collected from the ortho-photographic plan; some completions of these data being made within the parcels where forestry works were performed starting from the ortho-photographic plan design and up to present. Some particular issues were identified when the growing stock limits were set, especially for the areas where vegetation lives outside the growing stock while the separation of the above-mentioned parcels raise some problems. The solving of these problems involves visits paid on the spot and the stands’ separation; in this later case the limit points being set previously by the combined use of GNSS-TS technology.  Following to the data accurate processing, digital products are generated, namely the thematic maps and alphanumeric data in tabular format out of which they can be exported to different working formats, if necessary. The spatial information systems are very useful products for forestry sector, being characterised by a high technical resilience, and providing useful information for different managerial, technical solutions etc., necessary to be adopted.
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SOME DIFFERENTIAL APPLICATION’S PARTICULARITIES IN THE CASE OF MAINTENANCE WORKS OF NATURAL REGENERATIONS IN THE OAK-GROVE - BEECH MIX STANDS
 
Vasilica Laura Damian, Gh. C. Crainic
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Oradea, Romania
 
Abstract: Natural regenerations represent a concrete and safety modality to obtain valuable stands, characterised by a high level of ecosystem stability and superior productivity. Management of natural regenerations is, most often, a complex activity which involves professionalism and experience as well as adequate logistical framework. The oak-grove—beech mix standsare complex ecosystems, taking into account the complementary requirements raised by both species forming the ecosystem. As a consequence, natural regeneration of this stand requires a series of framework condition for achievement. The stand accessibility represents a basic condition, if applied treatments (interventions)’ particularities are taken into account. Beech seedling tolerates to certain extent both the shading and protection provided by mother stand shading; in the case of oak grove, the requirements of in place regeneration are rather different, as longer shading could thus compromise the new stand. In order to create favourable conditions for regeneration installation and to achieve the massive state of the future stands, respectively, within an optimum period, a sequence of special works are necessary, the so-called the forestry culture maintenance. These works will be performed differently, being directly correlated with the ecological characteristics of seedling to be subsequently promoted. As a consequence, the creation of a framework of favourable conditions is targeted in order to incorporate the large size seeds into soil– the oaks case and ensuring vegetation optimal conditions for the sprung samples, through moving away herbal and arborescent species. These interventions can be performed manually or mechanically, the proper option being selected function of ground conditions and available logistics. At the same time, it is required that the maintenance works of forestry cultures to be consistently applied in order to ensure the forestry cultures outcomes, as expected by Forestry administrative bodies. The performance at due time (timing) of these works stimulates an exceptional spring and development of the future stand, thus decreasing the time span required to reach the massive state, obtaining a stand’s adequate structure and composition. Thus, the stands obtained through natural regeneration preserves the local origins in-situ. For the future, the production of these types of stands will be targeted, as the advantages offered by these stands are multiple and thus creating the prerequisites for an integrated intervention.
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CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WIND ENERGY
 
Lucretiu Dancea, Iuliana Merce, Lucian Nita, Veaceslav Mazare
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: Expansion of wind energy installed capacity is poised to play a key role in climate change mitigation. However, wind energy is also susceptible to global climate change. Some changes associated with climate evolution will likely benefit the wind energy industry while other changes may negatively impact wind energy developments, with such ‘gains and losses’ depending on the region under consideration. Herein we review possible mechanisms by which global climate variability and change may influence the wind energy resource and operating conditions, summarize some of the tools that are being employed to quantify these effects and the sources of uncertainty in making such projections, and discuss results of studies conducted to date. We present illustrative examples of research from northern Europe. Climate change analyses conducted for this region, which has shown considerable penetration of wind energy, imply that in the near-term (i.e. to the middle of the current century) natural variability exceeds the climate change signal in the wind energy resource and extreme wind speeds, but there will likely be a decline in icing frequency and sea ice both of which will tend to benefit the wind energy industry. By the end of the twenty-first century there is evidence for small magnitude changes in the wind resource (though the sign of the change remains uncertain), for increases in extreme wind speeds, and continued declines in sea ice and icing frequencies. Thus the current state-of-the-art suggests no detectable change in the wind resource or other external conditions that could jeopardize the continued exploitation of wind energy in northern Europe, though further research is needed to provide greater confidence in these projections. Of the renewable energy technologies applied to electricity generation, wind energy ranks second only to hydroelectric in terms of installed capacity and is experiencing rapid growth. The European Union has set a binding target of a 20% renewable energy contribution by 2020, which equates to 34% of electricity production. It is estimated that wind energy could contribute one-third of this production.
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BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AS THE SUBSTITUTE OF DIESEL
 
Lucretiu Dancea, Iuliana Merce, Lucian Nita, Veaceslav Mazare
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The indiscriminate extraction and consumption of fossil fuels have led to a reduction in petroleum reserves. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain region of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum oil. Hence it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country. Although vegetative oils can be fuel for diesel engines, but their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of its various derivatives. Among the different possible sources, fatty acid methyl esters, known as Biodiesel fuel derived from triglycerides (vegetable oil and animal fates) by transesterification with methanol, present the promising alternative substitute to diesel fuels and have received the most attention now a day. The main advantages of using Biodiesel are its renewability, better quality exhaust gas emission, its biodegradability and the organic carbon present in it is photosynthetic in origin. It does not contribute to a rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and consequently to the green house effect. This paper reviews the source of production and characterization of vegetable oils and their methyl ester as the substitute of the petroleum fuel and future possibilities of Biodiesel production. The depleting reserves of fossil fuel, increasing demands for diesels and uncertainty in their availability is considered to be the important trigger for many initiatives to search for the alternative source of energy, which can supplement or replace fossil fuels.
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CROP AREA ESTIMATION WITH REMOTE SENSING
 
Viorica David, Mihaela Sturza
”Politehnica” University of Timișoara
 
Abstract: The management of agricultural policy and food security require timely and possibly objective agricultural statistics. In well organized countries crop area estimates are generally available a few months after harvest; having reliable figures before harvest is a major challenge. The European Union (EU) grands financial aid to farmers, growing a certain kind of crops. In 1992, the EU decided to establish an Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS) in order to administrate and to control the farmers’ declarations. In Romania, this Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS) was established in 2005. The requirements on the IACS were expanded to graphical applications by regulation amendments. Nowadays the system shall comprise five elements: 1. a computerized database; 2. an identification system for agricultural parcels; 3. a system for the identification and registration of animals; 4. aid applications; 5. an integrated control system. In the context of Land Parcel Identification and Net Area determination, the land cover types to be taken into account in this study is focused on: Arable Land, Forage Land, Forest, Water bodies, Infrastructure. The purpose of Control with Remote Sensing is to check the conditions under which aid is granted on a sample of applications. The primary result of these checks is a diagnosis at parcel level. The paper focuses is on methods that can be considered operational or pre-operational and to analyze the step from classified images to area estimation. Crop area estimation is addressed, but most criteria can be applied to land cover area estimation for environmental purposes. In this paper is investigated an updating process based on image classification and change detection. The images have to be rectified in order to get reliable information about agricultural parcels areas. Problems in image rectification are outlined and a classification case study using the ERDAS IMAGINE software shows chances and limits for land parcel update.
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EVOLUTION OF SOME COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEMS PRODUCTIVITY FROM VINGA PLAIN IN  CONSERVATIVE TILLAGE
 
Daniel Dicu, Iacob Borza, Dorin Țărău
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: The research made is falling on the line to develop an sustainable agricultural system, responding to local requirements for establishing a scientific database necessary for the development of technology and measures of agroecosystems integrated management. The passing to no-till cultivation system radically changes the content of technological elements, that simplifies the technology by the suppression of soil work, so the impact on the agricultural ecosystem is different from that of conventional technology, first decreases the pressure on agricultural ecosystem and on the other  apear new interactions, new disrupt the new balance or imbalances. The research made in the world concerning no-till technology  get some information about the implications of this system of agricultural cultivation on the environment, showed that the impact varies from one area to another, depending on climatic and soil conditions encountered, agricultural management. The researches regarding the evolution of the agro-ecosystems’ quality and productivity from the Vinga High Plain in the no-till crop system tries to highlight the quality and quantity changes emerged in the agricultural ecosystem. The no-till crop system was applied  at the wheat, maize and soy crops. The experimental field is situated on a cambium chernozem clayey earth/clayey earth, dominant in the Prodagro West Arad Agro-center and representative for an important surface of the  Banat –Crisana Plain. The experiment has three factors, being of the type 2x2x3, with subdivided parcels into 4 repetitions (144 parcels). The experimental factors are: Factor A – the technological system (A1 – without deep soil working, A2 – with deep soil working), Factor B- the culture system (B1- classic culture system, B2- No-till culture system), Factor C- fertilizers doses (C1- N0 P0 K0, C2- N80 P80 K80, C3- N160 P80 K80). Considering the evolution of soil humidity, the observations made monthly for the three cultures showed that in the no-till system, there are more uniform values in the soil profile, and in the variants where the deep work of soil was made it could be observed a low increase of the water volume in the soil. Even if the productions obtained in the classic system are superior than those obtained in the no-till system, considering the economical costs for establishing a culture in the no-till system are lower, the same as the pressure made upon the soil (by reducing the number of passes with the agricultural machines and installations), than the classic system.
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THE ANALISYS OF THE STANDS STRUCTURE AND THE INTERVENTIONS FOR APPLING THE WARANTY OF DURABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SESSILE OAK AND EUROPEAN BEECH MIXES FROM THE MIDDLE BASIN OF CRISUL REPEDE RIVER
 
Lucian Sorin Dorog
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Oradea, Romania
 
Abstract: The structure of stands is the one which gives the more complex information about the programe of the stand and its following evolution if there are no esential (unexpected) modifications which can totally change the initial programe. This paper studied a mixed stand of sessile oak and european beech for which its characteristics were established and then, through successive simulations, different tipes of thinnings were pictured for which the characteristics of the stand were calculated afterwords.  Appling different sistems of silvotechnical mesures influences the size of growth and the quality of the wood, meaning the ratio between the volume of thick and thin trees, of different species and qualities. The structure of a stand can be defined as an interaction sistem between the element obeyed to modifications. These interactions give the stand stability and durability in time. The structure appears as a general characteristic of the coexistence relations between the elements of the stand. The relations between the elements of the stand which define its structure can be of many types: gathering relations,asociation relations, size and domination relations. Each of these relation types distinctevly establish some characteristics of the structure of the stand. The gathering relations establish the consistence of the stands, the asociation ones-type of the mix, size and domination relations establish structure of the stand in a vertical plan. Structure of the stands is the result of the abiotic environment action and the interaction of the system elements. Among the complex interactions which influence the structure of the stand, the intraspecific and and interspecific relations have an important role. These interactions are obeyed to the capacity of the species for perpetuation in space and time. Among intraspecific relations the ones of embaresment and rivality can be mentioned and among interspecific relations the ones of favouring, embaresment and rivality are mentioned. The forming and the dynamics of the structure of the stands is given on one hand by the competition, favouring, embaresment relations, the intra and interspecific cooperation and on the other hand by the interactions with the abiotic environment, taking into acount the genetic features also. In the mixed stands, as in the case of European beech, European spruce and European silver fir stands, the competition, favouring and cooperation appear as interspecific rates. In the mixed stands the interspecific competition in minimum and the cooperation and favouring relations act in the way of asuring stability and perennity of the stands. As a result of the factors complexity which interfear in defining the structure of the stands it is necesary that on the basis of the concret conditions, the models which correspond to silvicultural conditions, social- economical and ecological functions of the stands to be established.
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The analisys of the wood production for Salix Hibrid used for lighters for the sustainable development
 
Lucian Sorin Dorog
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Oradea, Romania
 
Abstract: Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in the generation of energy is an important strategy for the EU in order to mitigate climate change. Fo this purpose bioenergy is being promote through several EU Directives, which aims to increase the use of renewable energy sources to 22% in 2010. Biofuels are also promoted in the Biofuel Transportation Directive which set out to increase the share of  biofuels or other alternative fuels in transportation fuels to 2%by 2005 and 5,75% in 2013. A number of crops have been investigated with regard to their suitability for biomass production in Europe. These analyses show that perennial energy crops such as willow perform much better in terms of energy than annual food crops. In order for the average farmers to adopt a new crop such as willow perform much better in terms of energy that annual crops. Willow production has a high net energy output compared, for example to grain and oil seed production and its biomass yield is relativly high.  Salix hibrid is used in other countries because of their heigh grow for material to product lighters. The productivity of this plantation is about 30-40 tones/hectars, and this plantation we can exploit 20-25 years. This paper offer a solution to develop energy crops in the areas where the forests are not so good represented. The objective of this study was to present the advanteges of growing willow in comparison with traditional crops and also to present an economic perspectiv to cultivate willow for biomass which will be use to product lighters. The economics of growing willow, wheat and barley was analysed on farm level using a model presented by Rosenqvist. This model was developed for analysis of the annual ecomomics of growing willow, aperennial crop comparable tot hat of wheat and berley, which are annual crop. The model employs a total step calculation method in which all disbursements and revenues are discounted.
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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AS PART OF STRATEGY IN CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES
 
Jozsef Gal 1, Ildiko Horvath Galne2
1University of Szeged, Faculty of Engineering, Szeged
2NLG, Hodmezovasarhely
 
Abstract: The demands and influences of the environmental movement change our life. We can find the local interests win often, therefore processes not organized because of this and investments appear beside each other. In agro-food business the reasons are attributable to lack of information and the weakness of the supplying systems.  This situation offers different ways; therefore you have to find the best way to save it for the future. The problem is to know, how we can build into the strategy of the enterprise. Can it be in the focus and possible to take marketing-mix around it? Environmental market is been developing in Central- and Eastern Europe, therefore its terminology has not been fixed yet. Against this situation it is possible to develop alternatives, in which marketing is very important part. Demands of customers pull the environment friend products and services. The inclination of the bad acceptance of the higher price is connected to this. On these bases how we can understand and require manifesting environmentally based marketing strategy? The security political aspect of the environmental protection has got stronger particularly under the influence of the change of the political system in Central and Eastern Europe. This way the participation in international environmental cooperation is more than the question of the protection of the environment. We would like to write about scope, measure, manage of it.  It is not a duty for companies; it must be a type of motivation based everyday activity. We mention the regional special element of it.     
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ROLE OF INHABITANTS LIVING OUTSIDE OF TOWNS IN RURAL AREAS
 
Jozsef Gal 1, Ildiko Horvath Galne2
1University of Szeged, Faculty of Engineering, Szeged
2NLG, Hodmezovasarhely
  
Abstract: Since collectivization of the agriculture in the past few decades, scientific literature defines the population living outside of towns or villages agriculture peasantry. It is false, because it was not an occupational construction any more; all of them all changed a lot in the look of commerce. The peasantry got its share of a determining role in the Hungarian society's establishment in the course of the centuries; let it be an economy, sociology, a tradition, e.g. The last changes of twenty years did not let the farms untouched. New inhabitants arrived and others left this form of living, therefore nowadays it shows a quite heterogeneous picture to us considering their occupation, their conduct, their social role, appeared on the farms.
By today everything has changed a lot from the aspects of both employment structure and farming activity.
From the beginning of the 60s, for their children the school became the most important channel of social mobility.
Its role was increased by two factors, on one side mechanical and technological development together with industrialization, on the other side termination of private estate property which cancelled the question of inheritance. The young generation finishing schools meant the labour supply. They generally finished trade or technical schools. These young people did not move back to their parents’ home, to the farm. They stayed in the town, started a family there and though they helped parents with the seasonal work, their children have become alienated from both this way of life and this view of life.
The peasantry had a considerable role in formation of the Hungarian society throughout the centuries in the fields of economy, sociology, traditions etc. Changes in the last twenty years could not leave the farms untouched. There are new inhabitants on farms who can give a fairly heterogeneous picture regarding their trades, way of living or social role.
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LEAD PHYTOEXTRACTION AND REMANENT EFFECT OF Pb AND EDTA TREATMENT
 
Eugenia  Gament, Georgiana Plopeanu, Vera Carabulea, Nicoleta Vrinceanu
National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science,
Agrochemistry and Environmental Protection – ICPA Bucharest, Romania
 
Abstract: Phytotechnologies exploit natural plant physiological and biochemical processes, and green plants can be used for decontamination of soils polluted with trace elements and organic compounds (phytoremediation). A significant part of agricultural land in Europe and elsewhere is contaminated with heavy metals, some of which still in agriculture use. Plants play a crucial role in the contamination of the food chain by toxic metals, via primary accumulation before entry into animal or human body. Nowadays, the use of plants for the removal of atmospheric contaminants is less developed, but it will become extremely relevant to sustainable development and human health. Phytoextraction can be considered absorption of trace elements into roots, then translocation into shoots, followed by the harvest and destruction of the contaminated plants, with possible recycling strategies to recover metals from biomass or ash. The paper presents the preliminary tests regarding the remanent effect of Pb and EDTA treatment on the capacity of lead translocation into maize plants. It is presented the second vegetation cycle of maize plants on cambic chernozem soil material treated with both three different lead concentrations (1000 mgPb·kg-1, 2000 mgPb·kg-1, 300 0mgPb·kg-1) and EDTA remanent contents. The treatments (Pb and EDTA) were applied before seeding, at the beginning of the cicle I and consisted in the application of three lead concentrations (1000 mgPb·kg-1, 2000 mgPb·kg-1, 3000 mgPb·kg-1) and 6 concentrations levels of EDTA (expressed as ratio between EDTA and Pb). To study the remanent effect, we limited the number of doses of EDTA to 4 concentrations (0; 0.5; 1; 2). Similar with the first cycle, the plants weight, the plants height and the lead content from maize shoots are strongly influenced by the treatments with Pb, EDTA or Pb+EDTA. Pb concentration in biomass increased with EDTA concentration for the same Pb pollution degree. This study, as a preliminary test, evaluated the maximum permissible levels as concern both the lead accumulation degree and the chelating agent concentrations required to perform some phytoextraction conditions.
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HYDROCHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION OF SMALL DAM LAKES FROM OLTENIA PLAIN AND THEIR USEFULNESS FOR TOURISM AND LEISURE
 
Elena  Gavrilescu, Georgian  Gavrilescu
University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture
  
Abstract: Research conducted in the Preajba Valley catchment aimed they introduction on the list of protected nature reserves from our country.  Studies in this area were made by Brezeanu Gh, 2003, Cioboiu Olivia, 2002, Pleniceanu V., 2004. Preajba Valley catchment is characterized by a special contribution of groundwater quartered in alluvial deposits of the three levels of terraces from the left of Jiu River. Lakes formed by crossing the river Valea Preajba and its tributary Valea Bătrână, fragmenting them into 14 segments - areas that have formed as many lakes. It is noted that areas of lakes increases from upstream to downstream, fact correlated with their depths. The direction of this catchment is East-West, contrary to other of the Plain of Oltenia.  Preajba Basin is highlighted by ecological features of the area. Thus, in an area not exceeding 30 square kilometers are grouped a variety of continentalaquatic ecosystems: springs, streams, rivers, lakes and swamps. Each of these confer own features to biocenosis, plant and animal populations, this providing an image of ecological diversity in a limited geographical range. The study focused on determining the physicochemical parameters from the aquifer, related with the ecosystems biocenosis by which is populated. To determine the physicochemical properties of water were sampled from a variety of locations in order to establish exactly the character of each type of ecosystem and their combination: limnocrene, reocrene, limnoreocrene. This qualification explained largely physicochemical features of each category.  The spring water fits in 1-st quality category being exploited in order to supply the Craiova city. The water chemistry shows a high nitrates and phosphates content, being classified in eutrophic waters category. In terms of anion and cation content lakes could be described like bicarbonate sulphate calcic magnesic category, characteristics of mixed mineralization (is notice a high biogenic elements this being a particular character of the lakes). The waters fit in the 2-nd quality category, being used for fish (except salmon culture) as well as tourist and recreational purposes. The originality of the work lies in the classification of hydrological configurations and usage delimitation. The present study, beside to future environmental studies indicate this ecosystem as a new protected area.
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ATMOSPHERE AND SOIL POLLUTION SOURCES
IN MONO-INDUSTRIAL AREAS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
 
Tudor Goldan, Florian Bușe, Cătălin Nistor
University of Petroșani
  
Abstract: The mining industry induces major influences on the environment, which appears in every stage of the technological processes. Besides the solid wastes, the mining industry also generates gaseous and liquid wastes, in significant amounts. Opencast mining deeply affects all the environmental factors (soil, water, air) and involves high expenses for affected surface land restoration in order to put it back in the economical circuit. The mining mass from waste dumps consists in a heterogenous mixture of rocks with different strengths, granulometry and physical and mechanical properties. This leads to the growing of vegetation in these areas only after their coverage with a vegetal soil layer and their reintroducing in the agricultural circuit. If the waste  dumps are storing wastes issued from rocks conraining metalic sulphides, the rainfalls are generating chemical and bacterian solubilisation of these sulphides and the resulting solutions are tricklering in the ground and underground waters, affecting the local hidrographic network. As a consequence of mining operations, the vegetation is also affected through deforestation, landslides and dust settling on leafs, resulting a dramatic decrease of the agricultural production in the region. When the mineral deposit is mined out by underground workings, the stress and strain state in the rock massif is modified, generating the surrounding rock stability decrease and their displacement on a certain distance, according to their loosening capacity and their capacity of filling the resulting cave. Sometimes, the movement of the surrounding rocks can affect the surface ground, producing its degradation and that of the facilities built up in the influence area. For a significantly long period, the coal will maintain his role of safe energetically fuel, for many countries being the only available fuel to provide the growing electricity demand. Coal-based thermo-electrical power plants can affect the environment, even by impacting the ecological balance in their proximity, through their complex influences exerted on all the environmental factors (water, air, soil, flora and fauna), so that the energy-generating sector is considered a major pollution source. Mintia thermo-electric plant is the third electricity generating capacity in Romania, with an installed capacity of 1260 MW and a yearly output exceeding 4 million MWh. For thermal and electric power generation, it yearly consumes 2.3-3 million tons of coal, over 500 t fuel oil and 8000 m3 natural gas. As it concerns the Paroșeni power plant, his airborne emissions are lower. SO2 quantity released is of 8,800 t/year, the NOx is of 1,400 t/year, the airborne dust reaching only 1,400 t/year.
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TOURISTIC AND MEDICAL FACILITIES  IN ROMANIAN SALT MINE CAVITIES
 
Tudor Goldan, Ciprian Danciu, Cătălin Nistor
University of Petroșani
  
Abstract: The Romanian salt mines are located between low altitude hills, of 500-700 m, in an gentle continental climate, having the main climatic parameters less pronounced that we find in the fields and mountain regions, with a relaxing bio-climate, tranquilizer-apathetic, sparing, with a great number of thermal comfort average days. As a consequence of salt mining activities huge cavities were created, which by shape and aspect are representing real points of touristic attraction and a new kind of services was linked with the valorisation of these cavities in the rock salt massifs, representing real “saline palaces”. Considering the admission of the saline treatment efficiency, mostly in pulmonary diseases, the development of speleo-therapy in Romania is presently in continuous development. If, initially, the saline micro-climate did not exceeded the volume of a surgery room, resorting to speleo-therapy procedures the characteristic eco-system elements are increased, the micro-organisms concentration grows and the micro-flora is modified. It should be noted that in the old mining rooms the micro-climate parameters are having peculiar values, such as 12ºC temperature, about 50% of air humidity and an atmosphere charged with saline aerosols, with recognized therapeutical effects on human body’s health. The above-mentionned properties lead to setting-up in time in some abandonned exploitation rooms, located in stable areas of the mining field, of zones dedicated to various purposes: such as: touristic tracks; medical treatment facilities, especially for lung diseases; professional athletes training facilities; halidoms; museums; etc. The paper presents views from several Romanian salt mines, whose underground spaces, resulted after salt mining activities, are having presently touristic or medical purposes, such as: Salina Slănic Prahova, Salina Praid, Salina Ocna Dej.
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THE IMPORTANCE OF TOPOGRAPHICAL WORKS FOR BUILDINGS REHABILITATION AND MAINTENANCE IN THE URBAN PLANNING CONTEXT
 
Sorin Ioan Herban, Carmen Grecea, Cosmin Constantin Mușat
Politehnica University of Timisoara,Faculty of Civil Engineering
  
Abstract: Historical buildings play an important role in cultural heritage scenario: their main value is due overall to age, artistic and structural features and to surrounding environment.A study for monitoring and analyzing building structure becomes of easy approach, thanks to periodical testing of its level of safety which can be obtained through modern geo-technologies, referring to non-contact, often automatic, metric sensors. Rehabilitation and maintenance of historical architecture includes reinforcement of configuration, adjustment of geometry and other technical procedures. The 3D laser scanning technology is one of the important techniques methods to acquire spatial data. It scans the architecture of the objective point by point in very short time; records and create point clouds to simulate the shape by computer; reconstructs 3D model with high accuracy. A 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (i.e. color). The collected data can then be used to construct digital three dimensional models useful for a wide variety of applications. These devices are used extensively by the entertainment industry in the production of movies and video games. Other common applications of this technology include industrial design, orthotics and prosthetics, reverse engineering and prototyping, quality control/inspection and documentation of cultural artifacts.
The combined use of 3D scanning and 3D printing technologies allows the replication of real objects without the use of traditional plaster casting techniques, that in many cases can be too invasive for being performed on precious or delicate cultural heritage artifacts. The resulting digital 3D model, shown in the screen of the laptop, was used by a rapid prototyping machine to create a real resin replica of original object.This method is especially fit for surveying historical architecture heritage with lack of construction records. This paper presents a study case regarding different practical projects for 3D scanning of historical buildings in Timisoara.
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MODELLING OF SURFACES IN ORDER TO PROTECT THEM
 
M. Herbei,  V. Ciolac, C. Popescu,  L. Ciolac
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: The digital model of an object or phenomenon is constituted of a data collection systematically stocked (data base) that describe a tri-dimensional system of coordinates, arbitrary or particularly can form the object features or states/accomplishments of the phenomenon (conversion as a digital image) and allow by calculation programs, deducting the object or states shape and features for the phenomenon in new points. Modelling the areas is the process for representing graphically a natural or artificial area by using one or more mathematical equations.  Modelling the terrestrial area is a particular case for modelling an area where we should take into account the specific problems for representing the Earth or some of its parts. From the fields where the digital model can have an immediate applicability are as follows: analyse of telecommunication systems, designing the pipe networks (water pipes), command and control of different systems, as in all other fields where it is necessary to know the altitude information in different points of an area. The term of „digital terrain model” was used for the first time in 1958 by Miller and Laflamme who defined it as “a statistic representation of continuous area by using a great number of points whose horizontal coordinates (x, y) together with the altitude (z) are known and this representation is made in an arbitrary coordinates system”. The digital terrain model represents an informatics’ instrument composed by terrain data and software that represent a basic component of a GIS. The digital terrain model (DTM) is composed by 3 sub-systems: Digital elevation model- DEM contains altitudes, slopes, curves, etc. Digital planimetric model – DPM contains planimetric data and elements. Digital model of objects nature – DEN contains pedologic, geologic, hydrologic data etc. Generating the DTM refers to the way of data acquisition, to making the model by using different interposing methods and also choosing the structure of data representation (raster or TIN)
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GEOREFERENCING OF TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPS USING THE SOFTWARE ARCGIS
 
M.  Herbei, V. Ciolac, A. Smuleac, E.  Nistor, L. Ciolac
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: The digital map must be built by using all the resources available based on a rigurous analisys of their content and the costs involved, having the purpose of reaching the necessary quality under conditions of maximum efficiency. Each data source implies the existence of specialized software which will bring that data in a digital map format, starting with insuring the necessary equipment, going through the technological problems and data conversion and ending with the proper training and preparation of the personal. Before using spatial data in a Geographical Information System it is necessary to define spatial reference system which can  establish with maximum accuracy the corresponding positions from earth. This can be done through a process called georeferencing process which can identify the ellipsoids and cartographical projections simulating the real space. The georeferencing process implies framing of a plan representation into a reference system called location. For georeferencing a map we need at least two pieces of information: a series of points easily identifiable on the map whose location (latitude and longitude, rectangular coordinates) is precise (here the principle is: “the more, the better”) and the projection system where the original map on paper was made. The georeferencing process of the topographical maps based on known coordinates represents the most ordinary process of georeferencing a scanned map. This type of georeferencing process is used when we can accurately find the positions of the points on the surface of the map (usually a topographical map. During the time in Romania there have been used more projection systems, and the one used from 1971 until the present is Stereographical Projection 1970 on unique secant plan based on Krasowsy ellipsoid. Before the georeferencing process we must define the Romanian National Projection system into a CAD / GIS software. The parameters of this projection which will be used to input in the used software are: Code: Stereo 70; Description: Stereographical Projection 1970; Coordinate System Type: Geodetic; Datum: Pulkovo 1941 Russia (GIS and former USSR Teriritories); Oblique: Stereographic; Northing: 500000, Easting: 500000; Projection Parameters: Origin latitude: 46d , Origin longitude: 25d; Scale reduction:  0,9998.
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UNDERGROUND MINING EXPLOAITATION INFLUENCE ON THE SUSTENABLE DEVELOPMENT OF JIU VALLEY MICROREGION
 
Octavian  Herbei, Cosmin  Popescu, Mihai  Herbei
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: The areas affected by the mining exploitations are mono-industrial and the appearance of potential directions for developing them are very linked to the results of the influence of these mining exploitations over the environment. The effects of the underground mining exploitations are the displacement and deformation of the terrain around the exploitation. To study the influence of this underground exploitation over the area is necessary for putting into evidence the phenomenon of displacement and taking the measures for protecting the objectives executed on the surface and the surface itself. So, the development of the infrastructure, the tourism, services, the implementation of different projects in order to have a sustainable development of Petrosani town must be made by analyzing very carefully the phenomenon of displacement and deformation of the terrestrial area under the influence of the underground exploitation. The Jiu Valley area that is intensely and forced industrialized, recorded during the last 40 years an excessively a port of population with different behaviors and customs is reflected into the social and economical situation of the county. This area contains 3 big towns: Petrosani, Vulcan and Lupeni, 3 small towns (Petrila, Aninoasa and Uricani) and only one big village, Banita, which contains three small villages. Into the context of a sustainable development of Jiu Valley in general and of Petrosani in particular we must take into account of many factors. One of the most important factors that influence the process of development is constituted in the subsidence phenomenon in Maleia - Livezeni are, which has a very high tourist potential and also into the other areas of Jiu Valley mining basin. The protection of the industrial, social and natural objectives from the surface of mining perimeter is made by dimensioning the safety (protection) pillars. In many cases it is put the problem to valor the reserves of useful mineral substance set into these safety pillars so putting into exploitation and introducing them into the economical circuit. In this situation there are made different studies in order to know the displacements and deformations of the terrains under the influence of mining exploitation of a rock situated under certain geological and mining and exploitation conditions.
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ASSESSING DROUGHT RISK IN TIMISOARA
 
Ienciu Anisoara, Oncia Silvica,  Peptan Carmen, Fazakas Pal
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: Drought can be operationally defined as a water deficit state in relation to plant, population, and economy needs, resulting in discomfort and unbalance of social and economic activities and in negative impacts on some important environmental factors. The phenomenon is widely spread at present on Earth and in Europe, and it is due to greenhouse gas effect caused by pollution and by massive deforestation on Earth and in Romania. Atmospheric drought is seen through the significant increase of average daily temperatures during the summer as well as of average maximum temperatures in summer and winter months – an increase of the frequency of tropical days (daily maximum above 300C) and lack of precipitations. The paper presents the result of analysis of the following parameters in monitoring drought: sum of monthly and annual precipitations, average monthly and annual evapotranspiration in the studied years, monthly and annual hydric deficits and their graphic representation, average monthly temperatures and their evolution, as well as air relative moisture values; we also calculated and analysed aridity and climate indicators in Timisoara during the studied decade, From the point of view of the precipitations regime, an important indicator in identifying drought, the sum of monthly precipitations in the summer and even spring months (i.e. the annual sum of these precipitations) can help us draw a conclusion on the trend to drought and desertification during the studied decade. Moisture deficit was determined as the difference between the amount of precipitations and the values of monthly potential evapotranspiration and of plant water consumption, respectively, determined through the indirect Thornthwaite method, using average monthly and multi-annual in Timisoara.      Identifying drought during the studied decade in Timisoara asks for drought management measures that could also be preventive measures, action measures during the phenomenon, and phenomenon control measures.
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BIO-MONITORING OF BISHTARAKA LAGOON
 
1Imeri A., 1Kupe L., 1Shehu J., 2Mullaj A., 1Dodona E.
1Agricultural University of Tirana, Department of Plant Production
2University of Tirana, Department of Biology
 
Abstract: Data on the trophic state of Bishtaraka Lagoon are presented. The Bishtaraka’s Lagoon is located in central coastal region of Albania and exists as transitional environments between land and sea. The lagoon covers a surface ca.155 ha Level of trophic state is based on standard methods for analysis of macrophytic vegetation [15] and chlorophyll a content and other photosynthetic pigments of phytoplankton, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biological   oxygen   demand   (BOD), Phosphor contents.   Also   are   measured   physic characteristics of waters like temperature, Ph and turbidity of water. Plant communities’ evaluation is based on qualitative and quantitative characteristics and is classified through principals of Zurich–Montpellier school. Monitoring of chlorophyll a content and other photosynthetic pigments of phytoplankton, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphor contents, and diatoms species are carried out during a year from April to September 2009. In Lagoon are selected four stations for samples taking. Evaluation of water trophic level is based on classification proposed by Hǻkannson [4]. Oligotrophic: clear and blue water, with very low levels of nutrients and algae. Mesotrophic: slightly green water, still clear, moderate levels of nutrients and algae. Eutrophic: green and murky water, with higher amounts of nutrients and algae. Hypertrophic: supersaturated in phosphorus and nitrogen, excessive phytoplankton growth, poor water clarity. Flora of Bishtaraka Lagoon belongs to the aquatic macrophytes rooting in sediment. Two main groups are commonly distinguished: Emergent aquatic macrophytes. Reed (Phragmites australis) is often found in monospecific stands, but also mixed with Typha angustifolia, Scirpus lacustris. Submersed macrophytes. From this group, in Bishtaraka Lagoon we have registered flowering plants such as Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton pectinatus. The aquatic vegetation strongly influences the light conditions, temperature, oxygen concentration, sedimentation rate and turbulence in the water body. Analyses for determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) are realized through Winkler method. Based on the collected data we can evaluate that Bishtaraka Lagoon is characterized by a high trophic state – eutrophic level. Trophy state of Bishtaraka lagoon in four stations in April and September is presented high eutrophy,  increasing from April to September.
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INSTITUTIONALIZING THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT
 
Eva Koncsag, Alexandra Popa
“1 Decembrie 1918” Universiry, Alba Iulia
  
Abstract: This paper presents aspects of the present situation existing at the European level concerning regional sustainable development, primarily aimed at monitoring and evaluation of integrative regional sustainable development. The concept of sustainable development has begun to take shape in recent years, as a potential solution to problems facing humanity. The continuous growing living level and human life quality can be realized only using industrial and technological methods. These methods involve the growth of energy consumption and uncontrolled pollution of the environment. These effects are unwanted and this is the reason for a lot of debates in the whole world in order to find the appropriate solutions. Currently there is a tendency of increasingly emphasized of institutionalizing the concept of sustainable development in European and global level. This involves mainly: setting goals to be achieved, specifying the time for analysis, establishing the measures and the period of their application, developing control and assessment tools (Sustainable Development Indicators - SDI), mathematical modeling in the analysis system, checking results and also their interpretation and analysis. For this purpose, there has to be defined the concept of sustainable development for each case particularly, it’s indicators and established a mathematical model to describe more precisely the interactions of the analyzed system. These shortcomings are primarily due to hard quantifiable measurements. In terms of practical applicability, there must be formulated rules and strategies of sustainable development and highlighting the values of certain parameters that process characteristics in a given time. Thus, sustainable development is a complex process, which can be applied successfully to regional and then national level, by quantifying the data obtained. The importance of sustainable development refers to increasing the quality of human life, by finding possible solutions for increasing living standards and environment protection.
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ASPECTS ON AIR POLLUTION WITH SULPHUR DIOXIDE IN ORADEA CITY
 
Nandor Köteles,  Ana Cornelia Moza
*University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection
  
Abstract: At the level of Oradea city, the observations on the air quality are being ensured by the Environment Protection Agency by the intermediate of its own domestic monitoring system; there are three steady monitoring points namely: at the headquarters of the Environment Protection Agency – Bihor branch, on Corneliu Coposu Street at the Children Hospital, and at Environment Protection Faculty. The placement of monitoring points was carried out by taking into consideration the pollution generating factors concentrated in these areas. The air quality monitoring in Oradea is being performed through long term measurements of the air polluting substances, scheduled on 24 hours, respectively.  The aim of this paper is to assess the air pollution with sulphur dioxide in the Oradea city area, this indicator being monitored for a 15 year time span, from 1994 to 2008, respectively. The main methods used in the current research are the following: analysis method, comparative method, mathematics-statistics method and graphs. By means of statistics-mathematics methods, we computed the data collected from the Environment Protection Agency. The results we had obtained through mathematics and statistics method were then translated into graphs in order to highlight clearly the air polluter’s unsteadiness in time. This gas monitoring must be corroborated with the fact that, in Romania, there is an antipollution maximum rated value, which, for median values is 0.250 mg/m3/24 hours, and for a 30 minutes time, span must not exceed the maximum rated value of 0.75 mg/m3 (750 μ/m3). In the case of the period we monitored, the average values of sulphur dioxide within Oradea city area did not overrun the standards rather than temporarily and accidentally. At this fortunate situation the wind, blowing from South directions, was a major factor in dispersing the polluters. The variations of sulphur dioxide gas emissions for a one year time span highlight the fact that larger amounts are in the cold period of the year (from November to March), when the heating stations and other heating sources activity is intensive as well as during summer time, when road traffic quotas are higher than in the rest of the year. The critical areas from the air pollution point of view are located at the proximity of streets and boulevards with an intensive traffic, major crossroads, industrial waste dumps, unprotected waste dumps/refuses, animal farms, chemical industry, although the later ones have reduced substantially their production gen erating activities.
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RELATIVE AIR MOISTURE IN CRISUL REPEDE DRAINAGE AREA
 
Nandor Köteles,  Ana Cornelia Moza
*University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection
  
Abstract: The current research was carried out on the basis of the data provided by a generous meteorological database,  and recorded by 5 meteorological stations within Crisul Repede drainage area  (Sacueni, Oradea, Borod, Huedin, Stâna de Vale), on a long time span, between 1970 – 2008, respectively. The relative moisture represents the percentage ratio between the watery (aqueous) vapours (e) and saturation pressure (E). This parameter is of practical interest as it indicates the saturation point of a certain air volume with watery vapours.  In order to carry-out this research study we employed both a series of traditional research models as well as a series of modern means and models. The main methods used in the current research are the following: analysis method, induction method, deduction method, comparative and statistics-mathematics methods and graphs. The use of traditional research methods and instruments specific to climatology targeted computing as accurately as possible of all the available data, by this studying the impact of the relief as climacteric factor in the evolution of the relative moisture parameters. In the current paper we put forward an analysis of the monthly and annual regime of relative moisture, its multi-annual monthly evolution, the median frequency of the days with relative moisture  ≤ 30%; ≤ 50%; ≥ 80%. Die to the impact of humid climate, the annual median parameters of relative humidity are very high, with values between 76.3%, recorded at Sacueni meteorological station, and of 88.6%, recorded at Stana de Vale meteorological station. The watery (aqueous) vapours amount is dependent on air masses origin, physico-geographical conditions, soil surface’ condition, continental depth, level of rains, annual rainfalls, etc. The largest amounts of watery vapours in the analysed area come from Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. To air moisture level increase, it contributes in a smaller share the water evaporation out of soils, rivers surfaces, humid surfaces and plant transpiration. The air nebulosity, rainfalls, solar radiation, etc. all are dependent of this meteorological element. Moisture excess or deficit along with other meteorological factors may have negative impacts, of which we mention the following: degradation of people’s health condition, draught, the later leading to sudden dehydration both of plants and animals, etc.
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DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT
STRATEGII DE DEZVOLTARE A TRANSPORTULUI DURABIL
 
Ramona Lile, Luiela - Magdalena Csorba
"Aurel Vlaicu" University Arad
  
Abstract: The sustainable development concept was analyzed along a few decades, within a huge number of scientific debates, deepened at international level. That way, this concept received politic valences too, in the globalization context. Sustainable development has as background the finding that, the human civilization is a component of the ecosphere, dependent on the raw material and energy flows existent within it, on its stability and self-regulation capacity. The public policies elaborated on this basis aims to reset and maintain an rational long run equilibrium, between economic development and the integrity of the environment. Sustainable transportation concerns systems, policies, and technologies. It aims for the efficient transit of goods and services, and for the sustainable freight and delivery systems. Sustainable transport (or green transport) is a concept, an ideology and - in some countries - a governmental policy, that consists of strengthening or replacing the current transport systems of an urban/suburban area with more fuel-efficient, space-saving and healthy lifestyle-promoting alternatives. The term refers to any means of transport with low impact on the environment, and includes human or animal muscle-powered vehicles, low-carbon fueled vehicles, any kind of vehicle using a renewable source of energy for its propulsion. Sustainable transport systems make a positive contribution to the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the communities they serve. Transport systems exist to provide social and economic connections, and people quickly take up the opportunities offered by increased mobility. The advantages of increased mobility need to be weighed against the environmental, social and economic costs that transport systems pose. The EU strategy for sustainable development - which represents the basis for the National Sustainable Strategy in Romania - complete the Lisbon Strategy which is a catalyst for the ones who use to plan public policies for the public opinion, with the aim to change the behavior in the European society and in the Romanian one, and to generate an active involvement of the decision making parameters in elaborating, implementing and monitoring of the sustainable development objectives. The programs, documents and strategies elaborated in transportation, for the pre- and post adhesion period of Romania - in sustainable development field - contains relevant forecasts and target objectives too. Relevant for this analyze are the strategies and policies which concerns with a short - term period.  The most appropriate term to fulfill the European Unions requirements is the 2013 Horizon. The national objective of this is to promote a proper transportation system for Romania, able to facilitate a secure, rapid and efficient movement of peoples and goods, at national an international level, consonant with the European standards.
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THE IMPACT OF DROUGHT ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN DOBROGEA
 
Lungu Marius, Panaitescu Liliana, George Cracu, Anca Albu, Simona Niță
Ovidius University, Constanța
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: As climatic risk or risk associated complex, drought is characterized mainly by the absence of rainfall, increased sun exposure, soil and air temperature, increased evapotranspiration process, helping reduce air and soil moisture and, therefore, to reduce the pool of productive moisture in the root system of the plant, which causes wilting crops to reduce agricultural production and even to affect the total harvest, if not taken necessary measures to combat water scarcity in irrigation. In this way, the phenomena of drought and climate hazards are drought trigger environmental hazards that affect both agricultural production and the whole geographical environment, including public health. Dobrogea and climatology issues of risk phenomena (including drought), have been addressed in the work developed by D. Tâștea  etc. (1967), IF Mihailescu (1986, 1999, 2001), Octavia Bogdan (1978, 1996, 1999), S. Chiulache and Nicoleta Ionac (1995), Cr. Paltineanu etc. (2000), M. Lungu (2009). This paper aims mainly to know both the climatic features of the drought but its implications in agriculture Dobrogea. It also is intended as a warning to a careful monitoring of crops as well as for finding the best means of defense against the risk of atmospheric phenomena. In preparing this study were analyzed weather data from the period 1965-2005 the main weather stations Dobrogea (Constanta, Mangalia, Hârsova, Cernavoda, Adamclisi, Medgidia, Sulina, Chilia Corugea, Horia, Jurilovca, Gorgova, Tulcea, Mahmudia). In this study it was examined for the first time in the territory of Dobrogea, the distribution of indicators (standardized abnormal index, standardized precipitation index), highlighting areas within the risk and the action may be taken to prevent being of real help for farmers Dobrogea.
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FROST AND THAW - CLIMATIC RISK TO CROPS IN SOUTHERN DOBROGEA
 
Marius  Lungu, Panaitescu Liliana, George Cracu, Anca Albu, Simona Niță
Ovidius University, Constanța
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: In meteorology is considered as those days with frost in the minimum temperature is less than or equal to 0°C. The thaw  is characterized as a state of thaw of the cold period of the year, when air temperature increased to 0°C or above this value. If the frost period is accepted as the first and there until the last day with minimum temperature < 0°C, the duration of the interval thaw  no unanimous opinion. In the present study, the range of thaw was considered as research that supports that one can speak of a beginning of thaws  after frosts have stabilized, ie after the maximum temperature < 0 ° C was recorded consecutively in a number days and the end of thaws when average daily temperature continuously passed over the threshold of 0 ° C (Hairulin, 1969). These phenomena are possible across the Dobrogea, as a result of the action of polar and arctic air masses. The main purpose of this work is to know in depth all aspects and climatic features of both frost and thaw well as their implications in agriculture Dobrogea.  It also is intended as a warning to a careful monitoring of crops as well as for finding the best means of defense against the risk of atmospheric phenomena. Dobrogea and climatology issues of risk phenomena (including frost and dezghețuri), have been addressed in the work developed by D. Țâștea, etc. (1967), IF Mihailescu (1986, 1999, 2001), Octavia Bogdan (1978, 1996, 1999), S. Chiulache and Nicoleta Ionac (1995), Cr. Paltineanu etc. (2000), M. Lungu (2009).  In preparing this study were analyzed temperatures recorded during the cold period 1965-2005 the main south-dobrogene weather stations (Constanta, Mangalia, Hârsova, Cernavoda, Adamclisi, Medgidia). This paper examines first of frost and thaw climatic parameters and their influence on crops, is of great use to farmers Dobrogea. The region considered in the period 1995-2005, frost and dezghețurile have brought great harm to agriculture, leading to only calamitarea than 11,502 hectares, representing approx. 41% of the total area of climate risks disaster, which highlights the special impact on the economy of these hidrometeori Dobrogea.
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THE INFLUENCE OF MAIZE AND A NATURAL PRODUCT ON THE BIODEGRADATION OF OIL POLLUTED SOILS
 
Mariana Marinescu, M. Dumitru, Anca Lăcătușu, M. Marinescu
National Research Development Institute for Soil Science,
Agrochemistry and Environmental Protection, Bucharest, Romania
  
Abstract: Soils are major support systems of human life and welfare. Pollution of soil is caused by the presence of contaminants or other alteration in the natural soil environment. There are many petroleum hydrocarbons polluted areas today due to incorrect use of oil products. The hydrocarbons biodegrading occur in most environments where hydrocarbons may serve as organic carbon sources. Bioremediation is based on the use of microorganisms or microbial processes to degrade environmental pollutants, and offers several advantages over the conventional chemical and physical technologies as costs and negative impact on soil structure. This method can be a low cost effective and also an environmental friendly technology. Low biodegradability and bioavailability of the petroleum hydrocarbons may limit the biodegradation in polluted areas. Biodegradation is defined as the biologically catalyzed reduction in complexity of chemical compounds. During remediation the bioengineer can enhance the biodegradation by adjustment of optimal technological parameters. The aim of this study is to develop and test in a greenhouse experiment an improved technology for bioremediation of crude oil polluted soils. The soil artificial polluted with crude oil will be treated with a natural biodegradable product and bacterial inoculum. The plant used in the greenhouse experiment is maize. In this paper are presented the resulted obtained in the second experimental year regarding the following parameters regarding plants growth: the number of plant/plot, the height of plants, the number of leaves and the biomass. It will be shown the influence of crude oil on plant growth in a soil treated with a natural biodegradable product. Bioaugmentation is frequently used for the enhancement of the biodegradative capacities of polluted soils. According with the results obtained, this method will be used in field and the rehabilitation and reuse in agriculture of soil polluted with crude oil will be possible in a shortened time.
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RURAL ECONOMY DIVERSIFICATION IN SERBIA
 
Marina M. Miljkovic1, Hamid El Bilali2,  Sinisa Berjan3
1University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Department for Agricultural economics and market, Serbia.
2Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development, Italy.
3University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
 
Abstract: Since agriculture can’t create enough job opportunities many rural dwellers rely on non-farming incomes. Evidences from many European countries show that non-agricultural economy influences greatly rural areas economic growth thus improving rural population working and living conditions. Serbian rural areas negligence determines a considerable delay in the structural adaptation to EU standards. The aim of this work is to present basic indicators on the level of rural economy diversification, to identify and explain the changes happening in the rural areas during the transition process with a special focus on how and why rural operators diversify their activities and to present some measures and actions undertaken to stop the negative tendencies and to revitalize rural territories in Serbia.  Recent data from The Serbian Bureau of Statistics as well from the specialized national and international literature have been used. The achieved level of diversification was assessed by analyzing the labour force market and the income sources. Results explicitly show that sources of income and livelihoods diversification is an integral part of the business strategies of most rural households. Serbia has significant potentialities and strengths for rural economy diversification but they are not properly used. In fact, most of rural labour force is still engaged in agriculture (about 47%). Since agriculture is, in many Serbian areas, lowly productive and potential for its intensification is limited and/or can be environmentally degrading, living conditions improvement can be achieved only through households livelihoods diversification. Diversity of Serbian rural areas potentialities and contexts means that rural development strategies design and implementation should be tuned to their specificities. Therefore, collaboration of the public, civil and private sectors on the local, national and regional level is highly required and the participation of the local communities is a must. A more dynamic rural economy is not possible without valorising all available potentials and assets. This multifaceted research is based on a set of SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-bound) indicators using easily accessible yet objectively verifiable and high quality input data. It can be easily used by decision makers, scientists and development practitioners to monitor the level of economy diversification in Serbian rural areas and to compare it with performances in other European countries in order to achieve a better tuning of rural development policies. Limitations of this kind of research are due to the lack of an adequate statistical base.
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RURAL DEVELOPMENT-THE MAJOR PROJECT OF EUROPEAN UNION AND ALSO FOR ROMANIA
 
I. Mintas, Olimpia Mintas
University of Oradea
 
Abstract: Etymologically, the rural word comes from the Latin word rurs, ruris and means crop, fields, a territory occupied, lived, arranged and worked by man. In its most general meaning rural defines the fields (the country), the peasants and generally all the non-urban territories and activities. In the 20th century, under the impact of urbanization, the rural area knew obvious structural modifications,  and improvements to increase the production ability of the land, for the modernization of rural habitat. The enlargement of the urban space, the development of the means of communication, the implementation of non-agricultural activities, the introduction of some  techniques and technologies led to the loading of the  rural area with new elements, for a qualitatively and quantitatively improvement. The concept of rural can be defined in different ways.There is no generalized definition of this concept. The rural can be defined in demographic, social, economic, ecological and cultural terms. The decline of the traditional agricultural activities, the exodus from the rural areas, the ageing of the population as well as the low quality of the infrastructure are some of the major problems that the rural areas are facing.
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RESOURCES AND ENERGY, CORE COMPONENTS OF NATIONAL SECURITY
 
Olimpia Mintas
University of Oradea
 
Abstract: Development strategy of any nation is a coherent vision of the future, certainly in terms of Strategic generous and realistic concept of sustainable development. Responding to the European objectives in the context of globalization processes, Romania needs to realize obligations as an EU member country and entered the details of modern development. National Security of the Development Company is a dynamic, multidimensional, and at this time outweigh those characteristics. Energy mean for mankind which means blood for the body. There is realized map of the country's wind potential, but he did not realize the correlation between biodiversity and the use of wind power in areas that pose potential In the current global classical depletion of energy resources increasingly pressing problem arises identify new energy resources to provide independent of Romania in this regard. Researchers Romanians work in identifying each geographic area in any case to identify the source of energy that will be optimal to exploit both the technical and economic. In while working to develop technologies for their that converts renewable energy into electricity that you not be totally importers of such technologies. At the same time working on an inventory of traditional energy sources and to provision their life time. Natural resources are an essential part of national heritage and classified under inexhaustible natural resources - solar energy, wind, geothermal and wave category of renewable exhaustible natural resources - minerals and fossil fuels and renewable - water, air, soil, flora, wildlife. Like any other nation truly strategic resources are gas, oil, water, wind potential, etc. This work aims to investigated which is the balance of these resources (as we are / how we need), to highlight the "vulnerability" of these resources, then submit their proposals for balancing (elimination of "vulnerability"). All efforts are made to identify the meaning of renewable energy as any study involving telling time in this area involves measurements that are stretched over 3-5 years.  Practical implications of research. Achieving accurate as the energy balance of the country and identify low-cost renewable resources will provide independent Romania in energetic terms.In this  fact constitute an essential component of national security, in fact one of Chapters National Security Plan.
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INFLUENCE OF METEOROGICAL FACTORS ON THE EMISSIONS GENERATED BY A FARM AGROZOOTECHNICAL
 
Olimpia Mintas
University of Oradea
 
Abstract: Given the increasing share of striking the livestock sector in the national economy is of great interest to know which are emissions generated by this and their influences on environmental  factors.This paper aims to examine correlations that exists between emissions in atmosphere by notching animal farms and meteorological factors.To realize this work I make some measurements at various livestock farms. Noted that all the farms are located in different zone of  the Bihor county, where the weather conditions and topography are different. I note that measurements were made with a sampler for particulate matter and with a digital gas analyzer type Oldham MX21.I also has been used mathematical simulation of dispersion of pollutants generated by equations of mathematical physics. n the equations, leading to simulate pollutant dispersion is found meteorological factors such as wind speed, temperature, upward movement of air masses, humidity, etc. Initially it presents briefly, to highlight the technological process emissions at every stage of the technological process and also in order to extract their properties. Theme paper is not addressed in the first, but certainly is a topical issue through themes.Theme is studied by the scientific community of all countries with focus on environmental protection and the development of society in correlation with the principles of sustainable development. In this connection European scientific communities are remarkable efforts that try to achieve standards that must be respected in the breeding activities. Practical implications of research, importance of work: This paper proves its usefulness especially for guiding entrepreneurs in choosing the best locations for future Agrozootechnical firm and providing information indicative of policy makers in the field of environmental protection in such an objective economic analysis.The importance of the work result by highlighting how emissions from the activity of pigs in a growth industry affects livestock farming communities.
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CHARACTERIZATION OF SNOW PHENOMENA ON THE MAIN METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS FROM BANAT IN 1975-2000 PERIOD
 
Vlad  D. Mircov
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: Very important in rainfalls analyzing is the appreciation (assessment) the number of days with precipitation of different types for rain, snow, sleet, drizzle, hail, sleet, ice pellets and snow grains. In this paper we were calculated monthly and annual periods of snow phenomena and sleet snow for main weather stations from the CMR (Regional Meteorological Centre) Banat-Crisana, carrying out a full program of 24 daily observations in the period 1975-2000. Most snow days are recorded in the cold period of the year in December-January-February, and at the mountain weather stations snow even in the warm season. Winter, in all mountain stations, average monthly number of days with snow are more than 10, while the fewest snow days is recorded in the lower regions of the plain, which does not exceed an average of 6 days per month. In most weather stations and pluviometer posts, average first snow date is located in the III decade of November, exceptions made mountain regions where they appear in the second decade of October even in its first decade. Snow stratum has great importance for agriculture being soil water reserves and also a protective stratum, which reduces the frost penetration in soil. Was analyzed average date of first snow in plain areas being in the second decade of December and in hilly areas average time move in the first half of December. In the Danube Gorge and depressions the first day with snow occurs in the first decade of December while in the mountains may be in the III decade of November. In winters with thick layer of snow, its melting in certain weather conditions may cause flooding of large surfaces.
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 CLIMATOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTIC CHARACTERISATION
DURING WINTER 2009 – 2010
 
Vlad D. Mircov¹, Carmen Moisa², Lucian Niță¹, Antoanela Cozma¹
¹ Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
²CMR Banat – Crișana,  SRPV Timisoara
 
Abstract: Climatological characterisation for winter 2009-2010, namely the interval  december 2009-february 2010, supposes analysis the evolution in space and time of the different climate parameters at meteorological stations in Banat. Meteorological parameters considered in this analysis are air temperature, rainfall and snow layer. Air temperature is a variable parameter due to the factors that influence the heating and cooling of the Earth, its lack of homogeneity and the unequal distribution  of solar energy. The rainfall are a very important meteorological factor used for climatological characterisation of a region, an important link of water circulation in nature,  with distinctive implications in some activities especially in agriculture. In data processing it is given  a great importance for the extreme values  (absolut minimum and maximum), and for monthly average. It was made an analysis on  the number of  frosty nights, the number of winter days, number of freezing days, and on the number of days with snow layer. For the three meteorological station from mountain we made separate references.  In order to draw up the synoptical characterisation for december 2009-february 2010 we used synoptic charts with surface pressure and with height and temperature  at 500 hPa level. Analyzing  the deviations of  average temperature in december 2009, january and february 2010 compared to normal values (1961-1990) we noted that the average air temperature overreach the normal values in december 2009 and february 2010, and it was close to normal values in january 2010. Depending on deviations of  the  amounts of rainfall in winter 2009-2010 compared to normal values, the rainfall were excess in most part of  Banat region, which led to floods especially on lower  part of the rivers from this region.
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BUILDING FOUNDATIONS REALIZED IN PUNCHED HOLES
 
Monica Mirea1, Cristina Voicu1, Carmen Peptan2
1“Politehnica” University of Timișoara
2 Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: The paper presents at the beginning a synthesis of the technology for realizing foundations in punched holes, the fields of use and the advantages of this technical founding solution. It further analyses the types of equipment used and the modalities of punching the foundation holes, emphasizing their influence upon the improvement of the ground and the increase of the so-realized foundations’ bearing capacity. The use of spherical or truncated cone punching equipment represents a new and original element nationwide. The first punching research in Romania was realized by the team of the Roads and Foundations Department of Timisoara, with punching equipment in the shape of truncated pyramid with the small basis on the bottom. These studies have been finalized in 12 dwelling buildings (Basement+ Groundfloor+4 Floors), located in the area of the County Hospital of Timisoara. The solution will have an impact both theoretical and practical, having numerous applications and opening new horizons in the improvement of the foundation ground by using the punching procedure, since this procedure ensures the realization of buildings on weak soils, through direct, surface foundation. The subsequent deformations under the construction loadings are minimal. The solution of realizing foundation holes through punching contributes to reducing the volume of the excavation and the materials used in the realization of foundations, to cutting down the quantities of materials needing transportation (soil, concrete, steel-concrete, wood for frames, etc.), as well as to the shortening of the execution period. All these elements have a favorable impact upon the environment, finally the costs of the investment being smaller than in the case of the known solutions. The solutions of realizing foundations in punched holes consist in forcing into the ground certain spherical, truncated cone, truncated pyramid shaped equipments (tampers) through striking or vibration. As a result of this mechanical thrust, an area of packed soil is formed around the foundation, within whose limits the mechanical strength of the ground increases and the deformability characteristics decrease. Due to the reduction of the ground deformability, the foundations realized in punched holes can transmit vertical and horizontal loadings in the conditions of small size foundations. Finaly, the paper presents the advantages of using foundations realized in punched holes on soils with lower bearing capacity, for lighter building, including in the agricultural field (temporary storage halls, shelters for agricultural machinery, etc.).
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SOME ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGICAL RECOVERY OF THE STERILE DUMPS FROM MINING ENTERPRISE MEHEDINTI
 
R. Mocanu And Ana Maria Dodocioiu
University of Craiova, Faculty of Agriculture
  
Abstract: The researches made on the ecological recovery of the sterile dumps from Mining Enterprise of Mehedinti, Husnicioara quarry have had as goal the capitalisation of these lands that were degraded by surface mining  in order to extract lignite; with this domain there are not any researches so far. The researches that unfolded on these sterile dumps are quite new and these sterile dumps are different in comparison with the ones from Gorj District due to their sandy texture. The material and the researching method have consisted of: the identification of the main soil types; the study of the physical and chemical features of these soils; field experiments with different crops in order to increase the organic matter content; trials with manure and chemical fertilizers; trials with different woody species and crops. Accounting the physical and chemical features of these terrains that are not favorable for plant growing the main objectiv of the research was to increase the organic matter content. The using of organic and chemical fertilizers have had a high importance for the different crops on the sterile dumps. Without fertilizers the wheat and corn crops do not grow at all. Among the fertilizers that were used, the best results were given by: manure, urea, organio-mineral fertilizer on lignite base. The sunflower grows on the sterile dumps with no fertilizer yet with very low yields. The pulses are beneficial on the sterile dumps and among them the alpha-alpha gives the best results: 861 kg hay/ha with no fertilizer and 4.717 kg hay/ha with 25 t/ha manure + N96P64. Along with this crop the peanuts and chickpea can be cropped on the sterile dumps. On the sterile dumps from Husnicioara Mehedinti there have grown well acacia and poplar. The paper is new, original and very important for solving the problem of ecological recovery of the sterile dumps.
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A new method of evaluating the anthropic soils from sterile dumps
 
R. Mocanu, Ana Maria Dodocioiu, C. Negrea
University of Craiova, Faculty of Agriculture
 
Abstract: Applying the classic method of evaluation of soils „Romanian system of soil evaluation” the anthropic soils from mining quarries (sterile dumps) are considered to have almost the same productive potential with a natural soil as well as the evaluation marks. The goal of the present paper is to identify and adjust these indicators of the romanian system of evaluation in such manner the terrains affected by surface mining to be correctly evaluated. The researches carried out for the first time in our country in the domain of evaluating the entriatrosoils from sterile dumps have taken in account the changing and adjusting three of the romanian system of soil evaluation, namely soil texture under the form of textural variation, the humus reserve calculated on the basis of C/N ratio and the edafic volume determined on the basis of impenetrable formations for the root system of plants that were called „nodules” in such manner to reflect the reality of the production capacity of these anthropic soils from the mining basin of Oltenia. In this manner, the quality classes were as follows: class II with an evaluation mark of 63 points for the spolic entiatrosoil; class III with an evaluation mark of 43 points for the spolic entiantrosoil in conditions of homogenous texture and modified edafic volume; class IV with an evaluation mark of 36 points for the spolic entiantrosoil in conditions of heterogenous texture; Class V with an evaluation mark of 24 points. The improving of the evaluation system of soils with changes brought by the present paper for sterile dumps of 19,140 ha is important for: - elaborating pedological studies of class quality when the land is given back to the former owners in order to express the reality of the production capacity; - establishing the proper zones for cropping different crops for capitalisation of the land; - correct expression of the quality of natural and anthropic soils resulted from mining activity.
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POLLUTION WITH SEDIMENTARY POWDERS IN CRISUL REPEDE DRAINAGE AREA
 
Ana Cornelia Moza, Nandor Köteles
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection
 
Abstract: The dust, although not toxic, irritates human respiratory apparatus, is harmful for vegetation it penetrates into people’ homes, etc. As regards meteorological effects, one mentions the following: it reduces the solar radiation’s intensity, it is an incentive factor for mist formation, it alters the thermal regime, and thus it can put its mark on the surface climate of a region. As regards local physical and geographical conditions, we mention that the monitored area has the advantage to be at lower altitudes, with a large opening towards west, which favours a free circulation of air masses which purify the air against the unpleasant effects of dust and industrial smoke.   In order to analyse the sedimentary powders in the Crisul Repede drainage area we employed the data provided by the branches of Cluj and Bihor counties of Environment Protection Agency. Both at Bihor County and at Cluj County level, monitoring activities on sedimentary powders are performed on a monthly sampling basis. Thus, the sedimentary powders are being sampled on a low flow regime in 14 sampling and checking points, divided in three areas at the level of Bihor County and one point at the level of Huedin city, with a monthly sampling, as following: 1st area (county north-west area): Tarian, Biharia, Salard, Episcopia Bihor; 2nd area: Baile 1 Mai (1 Mai Spa), Oradea meteorological station, Environment Protection Agency Oradea; 3rd area: Telechiu, Chistag, Pestera, Alesd, Astileu, Subpiatra, Tetchea Huedin area. We have analysed the samples of powders at the level of three monitoring points in Bihor county deposited for a 15years’  time span, from 1994 to 2008 respectively, and for the Huedin area for a 5 years’ time span,  from,  2004 to 2008 respectively. The collected samples were covered all the months of the year. In order to carry out this research we have used a series of research methods, out of which we mention following: analysis method, deduction method, induction method, comparative method, mathematics-statistics method and graphs and interpolation method. The sanitary standard for sedimentary powders is of 17 g/m2/month and it was outrun only at Huedin sampling point. The high values recorded in this area are due to the fact that Huedin does not have a traffic belt highway for heavy traffic which is guided directly to  downtown where the monitoring point is located, as well as due to the Bologa and Poieni neighbourhoods.
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THE AEOLIAN REGIME WITHIN CRISUL REPEDE DRAINAGE AREA
 
Ana Cornelia Moza, Nandor Köteles
University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection
                                                 
Abstract: In order to highlight the wind characteristics in Crisul Repede drainage area we used the data collected between 1970 – 2008 from the 5 meteorological stations within Crisul Repede drainage area, namely: Oradea meteorological station (136m), Sacueni meteorological station (125m), Borod meteorological station (333m), Huedin meteorological station (560m), and Stana de Vale meteorological station (1108m). In order to carry-out this research study we employed both a series of traditional research models as well as a series of modern means and models. The main methods used in the current research are the following: analysis method, deduction method, induction method, comparative and statistics-mathematics methods and graphs, and cartographical method. The comparative method highlights, through comparing the parameters of aeolian regime, the weather fluctuation within Crisul Repede drainage area, the differences occurring function of the nature of active surface. The data collected from the database of National Meteorological Administration (ANM) were computed by means of statistics-mathematics. The outcome obtained through mathematics – statistics methods were subsequently translated into graphs in order to highlight clearly the wind unsteadiness (variations) in time.  The aim of the current paper is to research the wind’ direction and speed in the within Crisul Repede drainage area. On soil proximity, wind presents short-term direction and speed fluctuations soil proximate surfaces; these are strongly dependent on the value of baric horizontal gradient, the local conditions, especially the orography, etc.  The relief influences the wind features by fragmentation level, through summits or corridors’ orientation, by altitude, and mountain massifs expansion. The wind is channelled into Aeolian depression (hollows) channels thus leading to boosting wind speed and, at the same time, to changing its direction of displacement. The Crisul Repede Valley is East-West oriented, and thus it stimulates the wind air flows creation on this direction. In highlands, the dominant air flow directions are different as against the plains ones, and function of meteorological stations in the local relief, they can protected or in some sectors.  In urban areas, the wind elements are influenced both by soil characteristics and urban constructions, by means of building heights, streets’ direction and largeness.  The Aeolian data have a practical importance, as they are used in several fields of activity: weather forecasts, setting industrial building locations, city planning, air and maritime traffic, energy sector, agriculture, constructions, etc.
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CADMIUM AND LEAD SOIL POLLUTION IN COPSA MICA AREA IN RELATION
WITH THE FOOD CHAIN
 
Edward Muntean, Nicoleta Muntean, Tania Mihăiescu
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca
  
Abstract: High levels of heavy metals concentrations in soil can direct to plant contamination; soil contaminated by heavy metals may pose a threat to human health if these enter the food chain. Copsa Mica is one of the sites with the highest degree of heavy metal pollution in Romania, the whole area being well known on national and international level for the ecological lack of balance due to the  a non-ferrous smelter plant which uses ecological hazardous technologies:  Sometra. The aim of this study was to establish the soil contamination with lead and cadmium in the target area. As the local population produces, sells and consumes a great number of agricultural products, food chain analysis was performed in order to establish the levels of contamination with lead and cadmium. Samples were processed through microwave-assisted mineralization using a using a Berghoff Microwave Digestion System MWS-3+. Analyses were performed using atomic absorption technique with graphite furnace and flame atomization, with a Shimadzu AA-6300 AAS double-beam instrument. The obtained results demonstrated that the heavy metals content in Copsa Mica area significantly higher than the results obtained in an unpolluted reference area. For soil samples, the maximum lead concentrations were recorded in samples originating from Micasasa and Agarbiciu, while for cadmium, the maximum concentration was recorded for a sampling point from Copsa Mica, near the pollution source, being higher than the maximum allowed limits. For the other samples, the highest concentration of lead was recorded for snails originating in Copsa Mica, which accumulates also the highest level of cadmium, followed by grass (Seica, Bazna, Dumbraveni, Copsa Mica) and potatoes form Micasasa. For cadmium, the maximum concentration was that found in snails grown in Copsa Mica, followed by grass (Seica, Copsa Mica) and again snails (Capus). The obtained results showed that heavy metals contamination of soil in Copșa Mică area its surroundings is significant; the high heavy metal content in plants grown in the vicinity of the industrial site, as well as in different products for food purposes represents a severe risk for public health.
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THE TECHNICAL SOLUTION USED IN THE TERRITORIAL AGRARIAN FOND AMELIORATIVE PERIMETER FROM TIMIȘ COUNTY
 
Iacob Nemeș, Laura Constantinescu, Luminița Livia Bîrliba
“Politehnica” University of Timișoara, Faculty of Hydrotechnical Engineering
  
Abstract: This paper presents the technical solutions takes to the degraded area’s improvements from the Timiș County perimeter. These areas were formed into ameliorative perimeter in the agrarian found. The actual state of the agrarian lands is determinate by the vulnerability of their site, but also, by the management way, because of it isn’t assure the improvement solutions that are necessary and isn’t used the correctly agricultural systems or the culture technology that are properly. The negative influences that are caused by these facts, according with the risk natural factors, amplificatory negative processes generated. The degradation of the lands that are located into the low plain from Timiș County is determinate by the humidity excess. The multitude of the drainage systems solved this problem, but not completely. The flooding from 2005 affects a surface of hundreds or thousands kilometer. The agrarian lands lost their productive capacity because of their degraded or pollutions. All these areas were formed into the territorial agrarian fond ameliorative perimeter, where the land reclamation works is necessary. Another cause of the degradation processes is the grass land thickness that is lower, so the water stagnate tendency is higher. From these aspects, a soil levitation occurs and their humus contents decrease, also the degradation process increase. The period in which the constructive solutions proposed by the project constructor have been executed was not the proper formalities of lack of money and an auction formalities, coming as they are executed in the rainy season, late autumn, the work of sowing is generally compromised. In the ranges considered for the study, constructive solutions proposed by the designer were not always fully implemented, by waiver notes were executed some works to the detriment of others, as needs. The complexity and diversity of works carried out in these areas of improvement should help to increase production capacity of soils in the perimeter, but due to faulty operation of the works they do not achieve purpose (grazing immediately after rising).
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TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS ADOPTED FOR REHABILITATION S.P. 6 MOȘNIȚA, TIMIȘ COUNTY
 
Iacob Nemeș, Adia Grozav, Luminița Livia Bîrliba
“Politehnica” University of Timișoara, Faculty of Hydrotechnical Engineering
 
Abstract:  SP 6 Moșnița pumping station is located within the village Moșnița Nouă, and is situated about 1 km from Timisoara, near the county road DN 58 Timisoara - Buziaș. Moșnița Nouă is located on county road linking Timisoara DJ592 Buziaș about 8 km from the center of Timisoara, but recently it almost adjacent to the limits, the partitions area between Moșnița Nouă and the county in last years know a strong municipal development. Distance from other components places of the village is small, and Moșnița Nouă is at the heart of the village territory, linked to other towns with village roads, with Moșnița Veche 1,8 kilometers to the north, Urseni 3 km further south, Albina 3 km east and Rudicica at south-west. Urban development has led to the reduction of actual distance between places components from the nearest buildings Moșnița Nouă and Veche with less than 250 m.  Moșnița pumping station, proposed for rehabilitation, works from 1978 year and serves an area of 6320 hectares of agricultural premises of the establishment of draining Moșnița, and presents advanced physical and moral wear. The station was sized for a flow Qst. = 4,3 m3/s, a pumping height H = 3,6 mca and equipped with four electropumps with horizontal shaft type BRATEȘ 600 (Qp = 1,1 m3/s, Hp = 8,6 mca) driven by induction motors MIB 2315 M90-10 with P = 90 kW, and 590 rpm and annex relevant equipment (epuisment equipment, striking equipment). Electricity supply to pumping stations to do the post processing located in close proximity to 14 m from the building. Water discharge is via two metal pipes with D = 1000 mm which crossing irrigation channel CA1. Overflow pipes Dn = 1000 mm with manual valves, operate as discharge pipes for two electro pump. The pipes have a high degree of corrosion and clogging, causing inefficient operation of the pumps. Electricity supply to pumping stations to do the post processing located in close proximity to 14 m from the building. Water discharge is via two metal pipes with D = 1000 mm which crossing irrigation channel CA1. Overflow pipes Dn = 1000 mm with manual valves, operate as discharge pipes for two electro pump. The pipes have a high degree of corrosion and clogging, causing inefficient operation of the pumps.
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SOCIOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
 
Manuela-Dora Orboi, A. Băneș, I. Petroman, Mirela Monea, Ioana Bălan
University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
 
 Abstract: The paper analyses how the concept of sustainable development is defined, its principles and objectives, as well as the role and importance of the sociological dimension in creating a model of sustainable development. The concept of sustainable development is the totality of socio-economic development forms and methods not only on the short or medium term, but also on the long term. The basis of these methods is the balance between the socio-economic systems and the elements of the natural capital. Sustainable development as a concept has materialized during decades, within the framework of thorough international scientific debates, and has assumed political potential through globalisation. The central principles behind sustainable development are equity and fairness among countries and generations, the long-term vision on the development process, systemic thinking and interconnection between economy, society and the environment. Sustainable development is linked with the concept of quality of life and pursues three objectives: economic welfare, social stability and environment protection. Any project should approach all three dimensions of sustainable development: environment, economy and society. The social dimension is concerned with social inclusion, demographic changes and public health. Environmental programmes will fail unless they set permanent human welfare as their objective. Underestimating the role of social factors in sustainable development will endanger the development programmes and projects. The medium and long-term fair assessment of human capital and the evolution tendencies are crucial for the realistic perspectives of a sustainable development model in all its fundamental components: economy, society-culture, and environment. In Romania, the demographic trends are worrying. On the long run, the trends are negative. According to estimations from national and international sources, and not taking into consideration external migration, however, admitting a significant increase in life expectancy at birth, Romania’s population could decrease from 21.4 million in 2008 to 21.2 million in 2013, 20.8 million in 2020, 19.6 million in 2035, and 16.9 million in 2060. The objectives of sustainable development for 2030 cannot leave out the effects of demographic evolution on the long and very long term. Sustainable development involves meeting the necessities of the current generations without compromising the capacity of the coming generations to satisfy their own needs.  Sustainable development principles are time-driven and may lead to successful results of current environmental provisions, while serving the interests of human society.
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EVOLUTION OF DEMOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA
 
Manuela-Dora Orboi, A. Băneș, Cornelia Petroman, A. Monea, Ioana Bălan
University of Agricultural Science and VeterinaryMedicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
  
Abstract: Romania’s population has decreased continuously. Among the multiple causes of this decrease are low birth rate, high death, and emigration. The paper provides details about the current population situation, the demographic evolution in Romania in development regions and macroregions and the factors with a strong impact on the country’s economic development.Romania’s population decreased from 22.41 million in 2001 to 21.53 million in 2007; population density has also decreased from 94.0 inhab/km2 in 2001 to 90.3 inhab/km2 in 2007. The number of urban inhabitants has also diminished from 12.24 million to 11.87 million in 2007; rural population diminished from 10.16 million to 9.65 million.In 2007, 214,728 births were registered, (the number of new-borns was with 100,018 smaller than in 1990); the number of deaths was 251,965 (4,879 deaths more than in 1990). The birth rate was 10.0 per 1,000 inhabitants, against 13.6‰ in 1990, while the death rate increased to 11.7‰ from 10.6‰ in 1990. The economic conditions in general and the precarious medical services in particular, especially in rural areas, may have lead to the low birth rate. The main factors causing the low birth rate are of economic and social nature. The employment structure of the population has changed significantly. As a result, territorial and professional mobility and longer training periods have characterized the young population. The income problem, the situation on the labour market, the difficulty in finding a place to live are obstacles that many young families find hard to overcome.The population decrease is caused chiefly by the negative natural growth (-1.7/1,000 inhab in 2007, against +3.00 in 1990). The negative natural growth is the result of the high death rate, low birth rate and domestic and international migration to other areas of the country or abroad.The estimations of the main demographic phenomena provide useful information about the future evolution of the number of inhabitants and age structure. The demographic effects will be seen in time and will bring about changes in subpopulations (school children, fertile population, employable population); they will be felt after 2005, when the employable population includes the numerically reduced generations born after 1990. Within the framework of sustainable development, the medium and long-term objectives of the national strategies and programmes and the regional and district projects must be set in accordance with the demographic prognosis.
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CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE REHABILITATION OF THE RAILWAY LINE FROM THE HUNGARIAN BORDER TO SIMERIA
 
Carmen-Aurelia Peptan, Livia Bârliba, Cristina Voicu, Anișoara Ienciu
University of Agricultural Science and VeterinaryMedicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
 “Politehnica” University of Timișoara
  
Abstract: The railway line from Hungarian border to Simeria is the busiest railway route of the CFR national Company network because the most important freight and passenger traffic both national and international runs on it. But to make this railway line to comply with the international demands as required by the norms and by the parameters of the railway traffic along the Pan – European Corridor IV, it is necessary to rehabilitate the line. The studied railway section, being part of Corridor IV (from Germany to the Black sea), could also constitute an important link towards Caucasian and Central Asia countries. The scope of the study is to improve the existing technical conditions of the railway line, the quality of the railway construction and installations that make possible the trains to run with a speed equal to 160 km/h (passenger trains) and 120 km/h (freight trains). To this aim, all the natural and current geometrical constraints were analysed, in order to propose the best mix of upgrading works to be evaluated under the points of view of the financial and economic analyses. Particular attention was given to the horizontal curve radius in order to propose their increasing were possible, limiting as much as possible impacts on the existing urban settlements and roads or installation, and limiting stations removals or adaptation. Currently, line minimum curve shows radius of 350/400 m, while, line speed of 160 km/h requires a minimum radius of 1500 m. Four alternative rehabilitation investments have been identified, through the adequate combination of different compliance with AGC/AGTC standards. Studied solutions both envisage high changes compliant with minimum radius of 1500 m and low changes compliant with radius of 800 m (corresponding to 120 km/h speed). Basically the rehabilitation of this railway line will also mark a step ahead in bringing the quality of the railway network and the quality of the traffic nearer the western European standard.
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Measures of protection and consolidation of railway slopes during operation period for a rehabilitated railway line stretch
  
Carmen-Aurelia PEPTAN1, Livia Bârliba1, Monica MIREA2, Anișoara IENCIU1
1Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Timisoara, Aradului Street,  no. 119, RO-300645, Romania,
2Politehnical University of Timișoara
Corresponding author: ginacarmen_99@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: The objective of the present study is that to mitigate the foresee impacts from the railway line rehabilitation works. At the same time the mitigations measures have the aim to environmental rehabilitation, in the operation phase, with the objective to the global environmental rehabilitation of the interested areas of the Banat Plan, Mureș Valley and Deva Depression which intersects with the railway line Curtici-Simeria. According to the capital estimate of mitigations measures to the environmental impact, the investment in the environmental protection of the rehabilitation and upgrade project is primarily defined in about 3% of the total investment. Among the mitigation measures, we mention: slopes stabilization, drainage and erosion control, protection drainage (gabions); bio – engineering techniques; re–vegetation (workers, planting stock, transport of planting material); installation of noise barriers and installations of traffic signs and road bumps. The recommended mitigation measures that should be adopted to avoid or minimize potential adverse impacts consist essentially of prescriptions for the construction period or rather project solutions or technical-realizations with the purpose of foreseeing the possible rising up of impacts in the territory. Therefore it should tried: to contain the impact on the settlement keeping the layout of the project as further as possible from the houses/residential area and, where this wasn’t possible, adopting technical solutions; to respect the areas of environmental special interest as the Mureș valley ecosystem and the building nucleus of architectonical interest; to reduce the interruption of the agricultural continuum restoring the accessibility conditions of the local connections network and to maintain the continuity of the water network neither of main level nor of the secondary one. It has been underlined two categories of the project: the one of mitigation measures and the one of optimization of the project on the contents at the outline. The mitigation measures are finalized to pursue the elimination/control of the potential interferences gathered during the environmental analysis that had taken into consideration all the elements involved. The second category of activities carries out a double function: integrate the project infrastructure and the interventions of mitigation defined (for example the one of acoustic barriers) among the operation context. In the definition of these works, the landscape planning covers an extreme important role.
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USING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS
AT EUROPEAN LEVEL
 
Alexandra Popa, Eva Koncsag
“1 Decembrie 1918” University, Alba Iulia
  
Abstract: The continuous increasing quality of life of people held the numerous technological applications. But it emphasized the use of technological applications led implicitly to increase energy consumption and thus to uncontrolled environmental pollution, the adverse effects and unpredictable at the beginning. All these effects should be emphasized by using certain indicators, called sustainable development indicators, SDI. New and modern systems of monitoring and integrated assessment of regional sustainable development have a great strategic importance to Europe and the world, about the preservation and improvement of environment, and regional and global sustainable development. A basic component of such monitoring systems and evaluation of regional sustainable development is represented by sustainable development indicators, which contribute to understanding and modeling complex real systems. This work is to present concerns sustained in recent years in developing and using the corresponding sustainable development indicators SDI, in order to allow emphasize, quantifying and assessing the quality of sustainable development. Sustainable development indicators SDI deliver important information on the degree of achievement of objectives of sustainable development and the success of the strategies and measures introduced to achieve a sustainable development. Sustainable development indicators cover three basis areas, so they include indicators for the three main parts: indicators for the field „Environment/Ecology”, indicators for the field „Economic/Technical” and indicators for the field „society”. The idea of sustainable development has emerged as a possible solution to the complicated situation created by humanity, first desire for increasing living standards, on the other hand the destruction of the environment. This concept took shape as a possibility to resolve these problems, starting to be circulated to national environmental policies, especially after 1992. To address these systemic issues is passed first at the current situation analysis of national and European existing level on the monitoring and evaluation of regional sustainable development. This analysis shall be performed successfully using sustainable development indicators system, which began to be used internationally. These indicators began to be used successfully, although a number of issues arise concerning the collection of necessary data. There are special difficulties for the social field, whether in the field of technical-economic and environmental hardships arise because of the large number of data to be collected.
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THE ANALISE OF THE VECTOR SYSTEM OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP FOR THE CREATION OF A GIS PROJECT
 
C. Popescu, A. Șmuleac, Valeria Ciolac, M. Herbei
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: The output of a remote sensing system is usually an image representing the scene being observed. A further necessary step of image analysis and interpretation is required in order to extract useful information for the GIS from the image. Remote sensing is technology of acquiring information about material objects, area, or phenomenon, without coming into physical contact with them. The value of a GIS is directly related to the quality and currency of its internal data. Remote sensing offers a suite of tools for quickly creating current, consistent datasets for input to a GIS. We can say that remote sensing is a young branch of terrestrial measurements. In the past years, remote sensing has made great progress, given that the first remote studying and recording methods were mentioned four or five decades ago.  The research work on the land surface performed in air and outer space with remote sensing methods provides most valuable information for various fields of activity such as agriculture, silviculture, geology, pedology, hydrology, cartography, natural resource prospection and valuation, environment (soil, water and air) monitorisation etc. The chief objective of the thesis is to create the methodological framework for the use of satellite data in creating a GIS of soil, farmland and cadastre resources for a better management of agricultural, cadastre and pedological activities. Of special value are the results obtained by the recording, transmitting, processing and interpreting of remote sensing data. They provide new ways of investigation in terrestrial measurements and other fields as well. Remote sensing and GIS allows permanent direct access to pedologic and agriculture  information at different times, without altering the state of the surface.
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THE STUDY CONCERNING GEOREFERENCE OF THE CADASTRAL MAP FOR INVENTARY OF  ENVIRONMENT RESOURCES
 
C. Popescu, M. Herbei, Silvica Oncia, A. Șmuleac
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: The types of photographs and images that can be processed, georeferenced include satellite, aerial, terrestrial, close-range, and oblique. The use of the satellite-acquired data for environment resource study is part of an interdisciplinary field in which soil science is combined with remote sensing and information technology. Panchromatic satellite image,  1:50.000 scale cadastre map, 1:25.000 scale cadastre map, 1:10.000 cadastre plan; the cadastre situation in the studied area necessary to create a database; pedologic data from the researched area and climate data from the researched area; specialised software for working with image files or image viewing: Autodesk Map 5, WinGis, Erdas Imagine 8.3.1., ACDSee 5, Volo View Express. The system can be applied in the agricultural decision-making process and environment resource management. Single frame orthorectification techniques orthorectify one image at a time using a technique known as space resection. In this respect, a minimum of three GCPs is required for each image. However, precision application like those for plots, must be used with great care. The main difficulty at the national level is the lack of a numerical field pattern of a resolution compatible with the satellite images and a team of experts in correcting the atmospheric effects on satellite data. The integration of an archive on paper in an intelligent modelling system requires the conversion of the raster format in a vector – vectorization. Regarding the precision in delimiting the soil units for drawing soil or erosion maps, an accurate topographic base (topographic maps and cadastre plans) and airborne photograms or satellite images are required. The vectorization process is the best solution the CAD/GIS users need for a conversion to a smart database.
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LANDSCAPES ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO CORINE METHODOLOGY
OF THE SOUTHERN BĂRĂGAN FIELD
                                                                                                                                                                             
M. Popescu, Maria-Cornelia Urdea, Zoia Prefac, G. M. Cracu1
Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, “Ovidius”University, Constanta, Romania
                                                          
Abstract: The last few decades have shown a reorientation of the geographical research towards the complex study of the geographical landscape. During the years the natural surfaces got smaller and smaller (they were replaced by agricultural or artificial surfaces) and the vegetation suffered major transformations from the structure and composition point of view. The purpose of this paper is the elaboration, with Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, according to CORINE methodology, of the landscape spatial distribution map of Southern Bărăgan Field. The area of study, the Southern Bărăgan Field, is located in South-Eastern part of Romanian Plain, between Ialomița river to North, Mostiștea river to West, Borcea Branch and Danube to East and South. The relief is represented by a tabular plain, “bărăgan” type, with temperate continental climate, fertile soils as chernozems, and herbaceous vegetation associations. The inventory of the landscapes of the Southern Bărăgan Field was based on CORINE Land Cover (CLC) method presented in the “Addendum 2000”) by the European Environment Agency (EPA). As a basis for analyzing landscapes we used some of the parameters derived from Digital Elevation Model of Terrain (DEMT) and the soil map. The DEMT has been obtained from 1:25,000 scale topographic map, through the following steps: - scanning and georeferencing the topographical map; - digitizing the scanned maps; - interpolation of sampling points with the help of the Topo to Raster functions from the ArcGIS 9.2. By analyzing the way land is used in the Southern Bărăgan Field, we identified the following types of landscapes: artificial surfaces, arable land, permanent crops, grass-land, heterogenous agricultural areas, forests, shrubs and herbaceous vegetation associations, wetlands and sandy areas. The report between anthropogenic landscapes and natural landscapes in the Southern Bărăgan Field tilts in favour of the first one. Correlating this map with the morphometric parameters and the pedological characteristics we emphasize the major features of the anthropogenic landscapes and the transformation suffered by the natural vegetation.
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ASPECTS CONCERNING  FOR DURABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL SPACE FROM CONSTANTA COUNTY
                                                                                                                                                                          
M. Popescu1, Zoia Prefac1, Maria-Cornelia Urdea1,G. M. Cracu1
Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, “Ovidius”University, Constanta, Romania
  
Abstract: In Constanta county there are many touristic attractions such as cultural, historical, religious, seaside resorts, nature preserves which can be added traditional occupations such as viticulture. The purpose of this paper is to identify touristic routes which are capitalized as sightseeing in the rural space and wine products. In combination of these attractions may result „the wine routes”, such as: Murfatlar – Cobadin – Adamclisi – Ion Corvin – Băneasa – Ostrov, Cernavodă – Cochirleni – Ion Corvin – Oltina and Constanța – Murfatlar – Cernavodă. Information on agro-touristic potential by wine profile of Dobroudja have been obtained and by applying a questionnaire, in several villages in the Constanta county, as Adamclisi, Castelu, Chirnogeni, Cochirleni, Cogealac, Ion Corvin, Oltina, Ostrov, Topraisar or Valea Dacilor. The main elements of the questionnaire relate to: - the presentation of the locality, focusing on identifying existing a touristic potential natural or cultural; - existing infrastructure for tourism; - facilities for patent approval and licensing specialists in enotourism and equipment enotouristic; - recreational, sports or cultural tourism activities;  - opportunities of organization and practice of enotourism.  Following tabulation of the questionnaire is found in most conditions that are currently not licensing and patent enotouristic, but there is availability.  Although apparently, the landscape of Dobroudja, appears monotonous, in Dobroudja are many natural resources and anthropogenic attractions that can be utilized for tourism. The residents, small businesses and representatives of city halls in the villages where the questionnaire was applied are interested in the organization of enotouristic points and the creation of associations to promote Romanian wine products in a "wine route" for tourists who came on the Romanian seaside. Location enotouristic points for wine tasting and demonstrations of traditional techniques for harvesting of grapes and wine production process, local cuisine along with other touristic attractions are resources that can contribute to develop of durable tourism in rural space and an alternative to season tourism of Constanta county.
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THE LINK YIELD LOSSES, CLIMATE CONDITIONS ON A PRELUVOSOIL, POLLUTED UNDER CONTROL WITH OIL
 
Nicu-Cornel Sabău1, Șandor Maria2, Domuța C.2, Brejea R.1, Domuța Cr.1
*University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection;
**Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea
  
Abstract: The paper presents the results of the researches carried out at the Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Bihor county, between 1993 and 2002, regarding agricultural yield from a preluvosoil polluted under control with oil brought from the exploitation site at Suplacu de Barcău, Bihor county. The experimental device was made out of micro parcels of 1 m², set up in a randomized manner, in a Latin square, polluted with concentrations of: 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 % (0, 3, 9, 15, and 30 l/m²), oil in the ploughed layer, in 4 repetitions. The experience was cultivated in the first three years with millet, a plant which is considered to be resistant to pollution, and than until 2002 with spring wheat. The analysis of the yield losses from the parcels polluted with oil in various concentrations, have shown that these decreases in time, without any sort of agropedomeliorative measures. Starting from this observation this paper is commited to evaluating the influence of the climate factors, rainfall and temperatures, on the biodegradation process, through the accomplished yield losses of millet and wheat, in the research period. The climate conditions characterized by annual rainfall (661,2 mm) and temperature (11,0 ºC) show that the 10 year period studied had with 26,2 mm more rainfall than the annual average and was warmer with 0,5 ˚C. The yield losses (%) of the variants polluted under control with oil residue have, in time, a decreasing tendency, demonstrating a biodegradation of pollutant and a decrease of the effect pollution has on yield. By analyzing the correlations between the millet yield losses in the first 3 years of research and the spring wheat yield losses registered in the last 7 years and respectively the climate factors (rainfall and air temperature) registered in the vegetation period, very significant square, polynomial  correlations were established for each oil concentration. The 3D representation of this presents for each concentration a maximum value of yield losses at different values of rainfall and air temperature. For the variants with high pollutant concentration (3, 5 and 10 %) maximum positive differences of yields are obtained for maximum rainfall sum (600 mm) and maximum air temperature (17,5 ºC), the moderate humidity and high temperatures stimulate the activity of the microorganisms responsible for soil oil degradation.
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ECONOMICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANIMALS WASTE IN LIVESTOCK FARMS IN ALBANIA
 
Sallaku Enkeleda, Vorpsi  Valdete,  Jojic Etleva,  Sallaku Fatbardh
Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agriculture University of Tirana, Albania
  
Abstract: The introduction of biofuels, and its supply chain, is seen as a possible solution contributing to the establishment of a more secure and stable energy supply and the development of rural agricultural while enabling Albania meet its international commitments on greenhouse gas emissions, clean air, combating desertification, etc.
Nowadays trend of agricultural farms in Albania is increasing of their size, numbers of animals and agricultural livestock production. Utilization of organic waste from animals and crop residue have stimulate the Albanians farmers’ interest not only for potentially increasing organic fertilizer use efficiency, but also for biogas production. On farm biogas production facilities typically utilize manure as the main substrate, but other materials as crop residue can be added to increase biogas production. Biogas production secure positive impact in utilization of energy from Albanian farmer families. Depending on the type of energy production the biogas would normally utilized to produce renewable electricity or heat. The biogas process also generates other environmental benefits as is reducing of potential risk from environmental pollution (soil, water, air), so creating organic farm. Developing the biodiesel production chain could alleviate the main environmental and socio-economic problems in Albania today, that is, heavy dependence on imported oil, air pollution, land depletation, high unemployment rate and the poverty. It will also help Albania in their harmonization process to joining the EU (2003/30/EC Directive) and support the government’s commitments and policies towards energy security, rural development, employment creation, socio-economic development, stability and mitigating global warming. In this study there are analyzed three typical livestock farms, located in three different geographical  and climacteric areas in Albania. {north, (Shkodra district), west (Fieri district) and south-east (Korca district). This paper aims to investigate the value chain of biodiesel production and balance feedstock supplies, processing technology, and market penetration in an integrated system in Albania.    
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THE ROLE OF LAND CONSOLIDATION ACTIVITIES
IN THE SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ALBANIA
 
Fatbardh Sallaku,  Etleva Jojiç,  Odeta Tota, Shkelqim Fortuzi
Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Agriculture University of Tirana, Albania
  
Abstract: There is growing inequality between rural and urban areas in Albania. This situation occurs for many reasons and efforts to enhance the quality of rural life must include improvements to agricultural production, employment, infrastructure, environment and housing. The success of projects to improve rural areas will depend to a large extent on how they address the great number of small and fragmented farms. This paper focuses on the importance of including land consolidation as an instrument of rural development in Albania. In the Albania of today land fragmentation remains one of the most significant constraints which impede the development of rural areas in Albania with the agriculture sector most affected. The shift from centrally-planned to a market-oriented economy has profound implications for the prevailing social and economic system and the development of a democratic society in Albania. In broader context, rural development is critical for reducing global poverty and hunger. Extreme poverty is an essential rural phenomenon and, even with growing urbanization, poverty and hunger are expected to remain a prominent feature of rural areas. Land administration systems in terms of recording rights and delineate and demarcate relevant individual and/or communal boundaries represent a vital instrument to secure land tenure regimes and property rights in Albania. Improved access to land strengthens the social and economic position of rural and urban dwellers, enhances the sustainable management of natural resources (e.g. soil, land) and leads to increased food security and alleviation of rural poverty. Consequently the formulation of an appropriate land administration policy has a crucial influence on the socioeconomic development in Albanian society. This is specifically important not only in  transition but also in some developing countries where the implementation of land administration systems has largely failed to untie the wealth in land due to a variety of reasons. The main objective of the proposed paper is to identify (1) the relationship between land reforms and land tenure in the fragmentarization process and (2) the consolidation activities in Albania during last three years, and (3) their role on the sustainable rural development.
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THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ACADEMIC AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
AND HUMAN ECOLOGY
 
Gheorghe Săvoiu1, Mirela Stanciu2
1University of Pitesti, str. Târgu din Vale
2 „Lucian Blaga” University of  Sibiu
 
 Abstract: Global economic crisis and food crisis create a lot of difficulties in the sustainable development and economic growth and have also a significant impact over poverty. The authors of the present paper propose an extension of human ecology through interferences towards agricultural academic education and scientific research. The first section of the paper describes the evolution to contemporary economic crisis and food crisis. The second section underlines how efficient an apparently forgotten concept like human ecology was during the last century and still is. The essential structure for human ecology remains the family, where an individual receives his first formative ideas of truth and kindness, where they learn what loving and being loved means, and so what being a unique person means, forming their matrix for their future intellectual energies, a matrix that will be completed during the later academic educational and cultural processes. Human ecology, as an interdisciplinary study domain, essentially refers to the manner in which human groups adjust to their life environment, and so it possesses, through the “antropoecosystem”, as spatial repartition of man’s life environment, its specific study object. The complexity of contemporary life has made human ecology evolves, in an interdisciplinary manner, along many directions: the study of a separate group of people, or of the population as a whole, in their interaction with the environment represented by a given territory, detailing the concrete aspects that have an impact on human life, such as the inclemency of the climate, the water reserves and the hydrological regime of the water sources, the chemical composition of the water from those sources, the general character of the relief, the peculiarities of the vegetation, the social and status, the traditions and customs, the degree of environment pollution, the level of home hygiene, the population’s coverage in point of housing facilities, the specificity of their activities, their food, etc. For Romania, whose current agricultural education system is so frequently being restructured, the acknowledgment is imperative of a macrostructure centred on human ecology, academic and intellectual energy, and a new hierarchy based on the contribution of the activities conducted to a sustainable development and a new quality of life.
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HAIL - PHENOMENA OF RISK FOR AGRICULTURE
 
Mioara  Sisu¹, Vlad D. Mircov², Simona Niță²
¹CMR Banat – Crișana,  SRPV Timisoara
² University of Agricultural Science and VeterinaryMedicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
 
 Abstract: One of the phenomena associated with atmospheric instability and a negative impact both in daily life, and in pursuit of activities related to agriculture, is the hail. As a type of rainfall, hail consists of ice particles with a diameter of between 5 and 50 mm, sometimes even larger. It emerges from Cumulonimbus clouds and it is usually accompanied by rain showers, lightning and wind gust. Hail is a characteristic phenomenon for the warm period of the year and is formed especially in cold front passage (very active ones) over overheated surfaces. Thermal non-homogeneity in the lower layers of air, or roughness of underlying surfaces, generate upward movement of air, lead to the formation of so-called "convection cells", whose characteristics are essential in hail occurrence. Since in many cases damages are significant and it is difficult to say in the short-range forecasts which areas will be affected by this phenomenon, forecast for the immediate meteorological phenomena and anti-hail measures have a particularly important role. This work presents two synoptic situations that have led to hail in the Western Plain area and which resulted in serious damage. For each of the two cases, a presentation of the synoptic and mesoscale settings (with image examples for some important parameters), followed by a description of the general appearance of the weather, the context in which there were severe weather phenomena, in this case - the production of hail and an estimation of damage. In the end of the work, there is a short presentation of anti-hail methods that can be taken both in our country and at European level.
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TOPOGRAPHIC AND LAND SURVEY MEASUREMENTS AT THE DIDACTIC EXPERIMENTAL STATION FARM No 5 TIMISOARA
 
A. Șmuleac, C. Popescu, Valeria Ciolac, M. Herbei
University of Agricultural Science and VeterinaryMedicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
 
 
Abstract: The topographic operations for this paper were performed at Farm No 5 of the Didactic Station of the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara. The Leica TPC 805 Total Station was used for the topographic and land survey measurements, and the data were downloaded with LEICA Geo Office Tools special software. Class V points within the university were used for the measurements. These points were determined with a planimetric traverse, starting from station point A1, where a retrosection was applied, to station point A7, where a resection method was applied to close the traverse. A planimetric traverse was performed to make the support network denser at station points A1 and A8, from which a resection method was applied to close the traverse. The total station is an optical device used for topographic measurements. It is a combination of the classic theodolite and an electronic instrument for measuring distances. The total station can include a small computer that provides storage capacity and makes precise calculations. The following plans were executed after the measurements were taken: site plan 1:500; plot plan 1:1000; development site plan 1:10000. Generally, a geodesic network has at least two old (already coordinated) points that in the first stage help determine the coordinates of the “new” points with the help of a certain method.  A direct link is created between the older points through horizontal angular observations. Distances and orientation must also be determined between these points. These elements will be used in the compensation calculations. For this reason, their determination must be very precise. The calculations of the geo-topographic support networks were done with the TOTAL 2.0 software. The (temporary) coordinates of the points to be determined are done automatically. The compensation of the support network is done with the least squares method, the indirect measurement method. The software creates a DFX file that can be used with the AutoCAD package at a later time. TOTAL 2.0 calculates and, where necessary, compensates any combination of direction and distance measurements, from the easiest (cancellation of registration, multiple intersection, multiple resection) to the most complex ones (various traverses, polygonometric networks, triangulation).
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ELEVATION SURVEYS FOR A BALLAST OPERATIONS AREA
 
A. Șmuleac, Silvica Oncia, Laura I. Șmuleac, C. Popescu
University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
 
Abstract: The topographic elevations for this paper were done within the ballast operations area at Naidas. The area is located along the Nera River, in Caras-Severin County. The topographic and land survey measurements were taken with the Leica TPC 805 Total Station, and the data were downloaded with the LEICA Geo Office Tools software. The total station is an optical device used for topographic measurements. It is a combination of the classic theodolite and an electronic instrument for measuring distances. The total station can include a small computer that provides storage capacity and makes precise calculations. The measurements were taken along the Nera River, on 350 metres, downstream Naidas and upstream from the bridge on DN57 that crosses the river. After field reconnaissance and the identification of the operations area, a planimetric traverse and detailed elevation was performed. The operations area covers 25,335m2. The coordinates were determined in Stereo ’70 system, and the elevation system was sent from the rod on the bridge pier. The “0” elevation on the rod is considered the 107.27 m elevation - the Baltic Sea. The data typed into the computer were processed with special software applications. The calculations of the geo-topographic support networks were done with the TOTAL 2.0 software. The (temporary) coordinates of the points to be determined are done automatically. The compensation of the support network is done with the least squares method, the indirect measurement method. The software creates a DFX file that can be used with the AutoCAD package at a later time. TOTAL 2.0 calculates and, where necessary, compensates any combination of direction and distance measurements, from the easiest (cancellation of registration, multiple intersection, multiple resection) to the most complex ones (various traverses, polygonometric networks, triangulation).
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THE VULNERABILITY OF THE CIBIN HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN
FOR PRECIPITATIONS SURPLUS AND DEFICIT
 
Simona Spânu, Iuliana Antonie
*”Lucian Blaga” University, Sibiu, The Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
  
Abstract: This paper aims first of all to analyse the periods with precipitations surplus and deficit in Cibin hydrographic basin, in a causal liaison with the synoptic situations that generate floodings or droughts, but also the effect they have on the geographic environment.  The periods with precipitations surplus represent a risk that usually has a local prevalence, unlike the periods with precipitations deficit, where the areal spread is large, and the onset and evolution are slow. The perception in the case of periods with pluviometric surplus is that of a major hydrological risk, because of the violent and progressive way of manifestation, while droughts are perceived as being less dangerous phenomena.  Precipitations are the main natural source of water supply in Cibin hydrographic basin. The complexity of the factors that determine the regime of precipitations imprints the studied area with special climatic characteristics that have an impact on the geographic landscape. The analysis of the annual regime of precipitations in Cibin hydrographic basin for the interval 1961-2009 and that of the frequency with which precipitations have been registered on different risk classes denote that in Sibiu only a low risk of surplus and deficit is manifested, in Agnita the extreme values with medium and major risk are of deficitary nature, and in Păltiniș the extremes of medium and major risk are characteristic to the surplus quantities.  The quantity of precipitations fallen in the area of Cibin hydrographic basin has been grouped according to deviation classes (one normal class and five classes for each of the quantities that are higher and lower than the normal) and to pluviometric domains (where there have been gathered the values of all the classes with positive and negative deviations, comparing them to the normal domain). Then there have been established groups of pluviometric risk through surplus and deficit, to these being added the group with no pluviometric risk. The ensemble and unitary analysis highlights the relations that are being realized between precipitations and the other components of the geographic environment and underlines the local hallmark of Cibin hydrographic basin. The major imbalances that are being generated on the environment by the excess of precipitations or, on the contrary, by the lack of precipitations, justify the interest of climatologists for these phenomena. This analysis has in view both the direct, determinant effect of precipitations on the components of the geographic environment, and the indirect effect, favouring or limitative, induced by precipitations.
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THE ANALYSIS OF PRECIPITATIONS USING THE METHOD OF THE PERCENTUAL DEVIATION OF RAINFALL QUANTITY OF CIBIN HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN
 
Simona Spânu
”Lucian Blaga” University, Sibiu, The Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
 
Abstract: Cibin Basin has, in the 2237 km2 on which it stretches, a level difference of over 1700 m between its spring (the glacial circle in the Cindrel Mountains where Iezerul Mare and Iezerul Mic are situated) and its mouth (Sadu-Hârtibaciu-Cibin-Olt confluence area).The altitude plays a determinant role in the precipitations regime. Besides, the configuration of the relief also leaves its mark upon the moving air masses, determining the formation of types of precipitations. The analysis of the long data ranges offers an ensemble image regarding the succession of periods with pluviometric surplus and deficit for Cibin hydrographic basin. This approach allows the identification of a possible cyclicity of the episodes with flooings and droughts. The analysis of the annual regime of precipitations in Cibin hydrographic basin for the interval 1961-2005 and that of the frequency with which precipitations have been registered on different risk classes denote that in Sibiu only a low risk of surplus and deficit is manifested, in Agnita the extreme values with medium and major risk are of deficitary nature, and in Păltiniș the extremes of medium and major risk are characteristic to the surplus quantities.  The quantity of precipitations fallen in the area of Cibin hydrographic basin has been grouped according to deviation classes (one normal class and five classes for each of the quantities that are higher and lower than the normal) and to pluviometric domains (where there have been gathered the values of all the classes with positive and negative deviations, comparing them to the normal domain). The characterization of the effects produced by long-term rains, as well as rain showers, was done from the point of view of the risk they induce in the natural and antropic environment. Of interest for this analysis are the precipitations that fall during the vegetation period and which affect the crops.  The analysis of the annual regime of precipitations in Cibin hydrographic basin for the interval 1961-2005 and that of the frequency with which precipitations have been registered on different risk classes denote that in Sibiu only a low risk of surplus and deficit is manifested, in Agnita the extreme values with medium and major risk are of deficitary nature, and in Păltiniș the extremes of medium and major risk are characteristic to the surplus quantities. The quantity of precipitations fallen in the area of Cibin hydrographic basin has been grouped according to deviation classes (one normal class and five classes for each of the quantities that are higher and lower than the normal) and to pluviometric domains (where there have been gathered the values of all the classes with positive and negative deviations, comparing them to the normal domain). Then there have been established groups of pluviometric risk through surplus and deficit, to these being added the group with no pluviometric risk. The frequency of the years with pluviometric risk through surplus is low in the depression and plateau area, but it is worth mentioning that in the mountains the risk through surplus reaches 20%, and the one through deficit 15,6%. The risk through surplus signalled in the mountain region also spreads in the rest of the area, especially in Sibiu Depression, generating hydrologic risk.
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TRADITIONAL VS. MODERN IN PASTORAL ROMANIAN Area
 
Stanciu Mirela1, Săvoiu Gheorghe2, Sand Camelia1, Ciortea Gligor1, Vlad Iulian3
1”Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu
2University from Pitești
3University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine from Bucharest
  
Abstract: Research goal to know the current situation of some pastoral villages from mountainous areas of our country. Age problem in Romanian transhumance and the causes that have led to a time change from shepherding sedentary, local and swung at the flocks, is not yet elucidated.Regarding to the age of the phenomenon, most authors tend to date the origin of transhumance since antiquity, from the Roman province or geto-dacian period.Transhumance nature, by extensive economy, specialized in commodity products to market requires a condition of its emergence and subsequent expansion, the development of domestic demand of such products.Transhumance can be presented as "any first form of grazing behavior of the Romanian people, even the most extensive.Home and oldest form of increased cattle and sheep was always just to Romanian - shepherding the estate village.Shepherding by local peoples from Marginimea Sibiului had always dynamic character, adapting it to conditions and circumstances is taking place continuously, with the actual space of the inhabitants of the nearly mountain area, pasture and mountains, the more remote areas and more extensive.This led, in fact, what was called "swarming" of margineni peoples,  in their settlement form compact groups in many villages located in sub-Carpathian areas and along roads crossed hundreds of years and miles between villages hearth of marginimea Sibiului and far away wintering places.Compared with other ethnographic areas of our country grazing, as occupation, lifestyle, social and cultural phenomenon in general, held in a large number of villages from Marginimea Sibiului certains  of a locality to another.Material and methods: sociological surveys among the inhabitants of villages pastoral comparison of existing monographs. In some pastoral villages were published monographs localities, but they not reflect with accurately the  current reality. The importance of the work: there is presented the current natural and anthropogenic heritage in pastoral villages, in the context of sustainable development of mountain habitat in our country. Project which supports the work: „Mountain resources and sustainable development”, financed under the Call for project proposals - Round II in the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA), Fund for NGOs, 2009-2010.
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ACTIVITIES IN SUPPORT OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT
study case - potected areas in Sibiu County
 
Stanciu Mirela, Blaj Robert, Tănase Maria, Pomohaci Marcel
“Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu
  
Abstract: The study presents the ecotourism as a part of the sustainable tourism, setting the strong and the weak points of the romanian ecotourism, off.  It is carried a SWOT analysis out, resulting the elements which may transform the romanian ecotourism market in a reference market for the tourists. There is The Ecotourism Association Romania, the one which elaborated the basic principles of the present and future ecotourism. Protection and conservation of tourism potential and the environment is emerging as a distinct activity, with specific problems that require collaboration of specialists in various fields. Lately was adopted also in the tourism industry the concept of "sustainable development", already used in other sectors. For tourism, this concept was set out by IUCN thus: "Sustainable development is a process that is conducted whitout to kill or deplete resources, ensuring development. Resources must be exploited at a rate identical to that of renewing their waiving the service when the resource is regenerated very slowly, to replace it with another with greater power of regeneration.  All resources must be exploited so as to benefit them and future generations.” There are three major principles of sustainable development: - ecological sustainability, the insured incurred in maintaining the development of all essential ecological processes, especially the diversity of biological resources; - social and cultural sustainability, which guarantees a favorable economic development members of society, culture and values compatible with the existing culture and civilization, the preservation of community identities; - economic sustainability, having role in ensuring effective economic development, resources are managed so that there and in the future. Materials and methods: presentation of protected areas in Sibiu County,  presentation of activities within the project "Biodiversity Arpășel - a wealth of everybody. "The novelty: here aren’t no functional ecotourism routes in Sibiu county. This paper presents the main protected areas in the county of Sibiu and proposes ecotourism routes that can be done with students in schools and high schools in Sibiu. The importance of the paper: there are presented the main activities that can be made in order to develop ecotourism in our county.
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MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR MONITORING LANDSLIDE
 
Catalina Bianca Stoian (Amza), Anca Maria Moscovici, Ioan Stoian
“Politehnica” University, Timisoara
  
Abstract: The project will provide a technical solution for assessment of environmental parameters needed in landslide risk management using advanced technologies that will allow: acquisition of data concerning the underground water level (sensors installed inside caissons),specific environmental parameters, data regarding relative displacement of fitted terrestrial bench-marks (sensors for relative  displacement ) ;  transmission of field data through wireless communication to a risk management center; modeling and simulation for natural disasters risk assessment; control and observation of risk factors regarding landslides, based on an advanced decision-support system using GIS technologies and business intelligence;  complex analysis of  historic data and meteo and seismic forecasts, in order to identify the evolution trend (during given time periods) and foresee the risk of landslide and also to  - identify on a map critical areas; automatic reporting about parameters evolution due to increased alarm/emergency quota; interactive facilities for creating alarming strategies (actions, tasks, priorities) and generating emergency plans; automatic alerting via Internet according to an emergency plan; presenting information (text, maps) to action group members both on fixed (PC) and mobile devices (PDA, mobile phone). Natural disasters, also known as hazards, cause huge damages every year, directly affecting the social and economical development and also taking away human lives.  Hazard means the probability of a human/environment harmful phenomenon to occur during a certain period of time. Vulnerability indicates the level of damage caused by a certain phenomenon to humans and their assets. Risk means the probability of the humans and of their assets to be harmed by a phenomenon of a certain size. The elements on risk are the population, the properties, communications, economical objectives in an area. The global cost of natural disasters has grown over 800% in the last four decades being connected to an increasing vulnerability of the population living in high risk areas.  Landslides are disasters that destroy villages and towns, damage roads, railways, farm fields and have negative effects on every person that lives in the affected area and generally on society. The causes of these hazards are climate changes, seismic activity, but also incontrollable human activities like abusive land deforestation (not followed by coherent financially supported reforestation strategies).  Environment protection problems focus on identifying the causes of natural disasters, preventing possible damages, globaly approaching the effects on short/long term socio-economical development.
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USING GIS TECHNOLOGY IN URBAN AREAS IN THE
CONTEXT OF DURABLE DEVELOPMENT
 
Mihaela Sturza, Viorica David
*University “Politehnica” of Timișoara, Faculty of Civil Engineering
  
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of using GIS technologies in most urban activities. The need for information is so great that urban areas can be considered at the same time not only as big consumers but also as big producers of territorial information. At the present stage, obtaining information about a territorial unit considered above, on and below the land surface has become a major requirement for organizations of planning and forecasting in all economy sectors. Data collecting and processing as well as storage of information are made in the so-called territorial information systems, each of them covering part of the territorial information. These systems are essentially similar to urban activities related to territory. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a technique increasingly used in the contemporary world, both in theoretical research and in many practical activities. Currently, the main GIS applications are used in local administrations, in utilities concerning water, gas or electricity and in postal and telecommunication services. Many GIS technologies have played an important role in the private sector in areas such as marketing, retail industry, transport, real estate, property development. The large volume of information contained in the plans and documentation existing at local administration offices, the damage caused by time and the difficult handling, the problems of interpretation and analysis, determine public institutions to allocate substantial financial resources for executing the applications in an Urban Geographic Information System. The performance limits of an Urban Information System are only of human and financial nature. Achieving such a system would reduce the time of analysis and would allow multiple users access a larger volume of information. The originality of the work is the authors' vision on the realization and implementation of a project of this scale. Approaching an issue which refers to the use of GIS technology in urban areas is important both for the variety of information, based on different types of data and the fact that it offers advanced instruments for various analyses.
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PEDOLOGICAL AND AGROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF DEGRADED LANDS FOR THEIR RECOVERY THROUGH VINEYARDS, ORCHARDS AND FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANS
 
Dorin Țărău, Daniel Dicu, Silvica Oncia, Irina Țărău
University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
  
Abstract: The paper presents some aspects concerning  the land quality in Banat. The addressed issues is relating to an area of 17216641 ha of which 1098520 ha of agricultural land, belonging to the Timiș and Caraș-Severin countys. The examination of ecopedological conditions, were setting in order and processing dates were made according to „ The Pedological Studies Elaboration Methodology “, (vol. I,II,III) of ICPA Bucharest, in 1987 and Romanian Taxonomic System of Soils (SRTS-2003). There are described, briefly, the physical and geographical conditions of the area and extensively the composition of soil cover, some restrictive land quality characteristics, characteristics that define them their vocation to some use. Studying the natural conditions (relief, lithology, hydrology, clime) and the antrophic ones it can be observed that the diversity of pedoclimatic conditions and the specific characteristics of the studied area have a great impact upon land resources and the way lands are used in general and in particular the agricultural ones (and also upon their actual and future productivity). Using the data obtained through out pedological studies and researches conducted by specialists from OSPA Timisoara and materialized in “Banat soils map”, updated in 1999 and 2003 with new pedological studies (carried out by O.S.P.A. Timișoara,) and also with data gathered from the agricultural and forest sites of the national monitoring system (organized by I.C.P.A. Bucharest), the following aspects regarding lands’ quality can be presented: - the identification of land vocation (pretability) in order to establish their most adequate way of use, - the identification of land favorability for different crops, - the identification of lands production capacity for different usings and crops when certain technologies are used, - defining lands depending on the amelioration and conservation tillages. Finally are given the general and administrative restructuring measures which must be undertaken for the management of soil resources in the examined area. The Government and its institutions have the duty to promote protection, conservation and improving programs and other types of programs that regard the careful use of soil sources, by providing the necessary funds for these and also by stating exactly their destination.
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ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUNFLOWER PRODUCTION ON FAMILY FARMS
IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
 
Saša Todoroviæ, Nikola Filipoviæ, Mihajlo Munæan
Faculty of Agriculture, Institute for Agricultural Economy
                                                              
 
Abstract: Serbian agricultural producers are currently facing with a large number of challenges which have significant influence on their business. Continuous monitoring and evaluation of existing family farms business activities is the only way to improve their profitability and enhancing competitiveness in such conditions. Bearing this in mind, the objective of this research is to emphasize an importance of the economic analysis of sunflower production on family farms and to contribute successfully to the formulation of the answers on questions is the sunflower production profitable and under what conditions. In order to have complete insight into investigated problem subject, investigations were carried out on selected family farms of the Republic of Serbia. Collected data were processed using calculation procedure for the purpose of determination of main economical indicators of the success of sunflower production. Based on realized financial results it can be concluded that with the selling price of 185 EUR t-1, only family farms which have achieved yield of over 3.71 t ha-1 with adequate level of investments are profitable. Since realized average yield of sunflower on family farms in Republic of Serbia in this year was 2.03 t ha-1 and level of investment necessary for realization of this yield, it is clear that majority of family farms have had loss in sunflower production. The results of this study suggest that the economic status of the sunflower production depends of the yield and achieved sales price, as well as of the amount of applied production factors and price level for their acquisition.
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SME’S ROLE IN THE ALBANIAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY AND
THEIR LEGAL FRAMEWORK BEHIND IT
 
M.Sc. Orkida Totojani
Faculty of Economy and Agribusiness
Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania
                                                                  
Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have a crucial role in the transition process in every country. SMEs already make up the vast majority of private agricultural businesses operating in Albania and because of their size and adaptability are likely to be the main source of employment generation. Improving the agricultural business environment for SME development is a key objective of the rural policy framework in Albania. The Albanian authorities are increasing the support given to the agricultural SME sector, in recognition of the growing importance of SMEs to the national economy. The institutional responsibility for the rural policy formulation and the supporting of the SME development remains with the Ministry of Economy. Institutional set up seems to be simple and straightforward. However, the impression is that they lack capacities to do their work. Various reports find the work in most cases is organized in a spontaneous way; although there are developed organization charts, there are not clear lines of responsibilities within the organization structures, etc.
Agricultural reform measure have largely contributed to strengthening the rural private sector development and supported the SME development. However, the progress is still behind the other competing countries from the region. The main challenges associated with the development of the agricultural private sector, in particular SMEs, remain the relatively poor investment climate and the level of corruption. Poor law enforcement, very weak corporate governance, both at the macro and at the enterprise levels, lack of management skills and poor infrastructure, constitute major impediments to the SME development. The legislation and the regulations influence the SME-s in a wide range of ways. They influence the process of the creation of a business which consists of the business registration and the provision of the respective license. Basically, after the year 2000, Albania has approved several laws to enable the proper functioning of businesses. The improvement of the business climate or the creation of its regulatory and institutional mechanisms has been one of the priorities of the Albanian government. The commercial legislation is one of the priority areas in the framework of the integration process. There is still much more to be done in the area of the financing of SME-s since the climate of micro-credits or long term credits is not too favorable.  The findings are related to the fact that new SME-s encounter a lot of difficulties to receive a credit from the banking sector and there is a fairly high credit cost.  The conditions required from the banks are not too favorable for the businesses and the interest rates are too high in cases when the credit is required for investments in machinery and equipment. On the other hand, identifying the financing and the development of SME-s as one of its priorities in application of the SAA obligations, the Albanian Government  has approved several important laws in that framework.
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ASPECTS OF THE IMPROVEMENT OF FOUNDATION SOILS CONCERNING
THE DEPTH VIBROTHRUSTING
 
Cristina Voicu1, Monica Mirea1, Carmen Peptan2
1“Politehnica” University of Timișoara
2 University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
  
Abstract: The paper presents the application of the technology of depth vibrothrusting improvement of the foundation ground for two high buildings: a Groundfloor+10 Floors tower type social-administrative building, placed in Timisoara, and a Basement+Groundfloor+9 Floors dwelling block, placed in Arad. The first researches and practical application of the experimental technology of depth vibrothrusting for low foundation grounds were realized at the former Roads and Foundation Department from the Politehnica University of Timisoara. The applied technology, the checking proceedinsg of the improvement quality and the behaviour in exploitation of the two presented buildings represent the novelty elements of the researches. The technology of depth vibrothrusting improvement of the foundation ground is very efficient in the case of the sandy loose grounds and sandy water saturated grounds. This technology consists of the introduction of equipment into the ground through vibration, on the width of the weak layer. The equipment consists of a rod and horizontal ribs, disposed in space. Because of the reduction of the friction, between the sand fragments (which can go up to 90%), these are rearranged in a settled state. The extraction of the equipment is resolved also by vibration, with a speed of 0,5 m / minute. Usually, the vibrothrusting equipment is placed in the corners of a grid consisting of equilateral triangles. For the two aforementioned buildings, the foundation grounds consists of partially saturated sand, which in a natural state falls into the category of grounds, which can be liquefied under seismic conditions. For the strengthening of the seismic protection of the other buildings, the depth compaction of the foundation ground was done through vibrothrusting. The verification of the compaction quality was done by dynamic cone penetration drilling, using the cone dynamic penetrometer. The very good behavior in exploitation of the two constructions underlines the efficiency of this method of strengthening the foundation ground. This method may be applied on special constructions from the agricultural domain, e.g. bunker, if the ground conditions mandate it.
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AGRICULTURE IN MEZŐHEGYES (1989-2009)
 
Brigitta Zsótér
University of Szeged, Faculty of Engineering
  
Abstract: The average area of land per holding was 20,6 ha in 2000, it is considered as a big area of land comparing to the county’s average (8,92 ha). However, I have to mention that the distribution of the lands was not even at all between the holdings, 71,7% was cultivated indipendently by the Állami Ménesbirtok Zrt of Mezőhegyes. 754 holdings tilled the soil in the remaining land. Thus, the area of land per holding was indeed 5,8 ha which does not show such a favourable situation. In the earlier times the land was even more fragmented. Between 1994 and 2000 the number of private holdings decreased by 54,9% in the settlement (while by 40,5% in the county). Technical development, production management with computers caused decrease and reduction in the labour force. Unemployment is an everyday phenomenon. In spite of these facts the sugar factory prospered economically in the examined some decades. The „Fémipari Szövetkezet” („Metal Industrial Co-operative”) was the second largest factory of Mezőhegyes after the sugar factory. The economic difficulties forced it to mobilize the working reserves. These changes determined the social mobility of the population. Furthermore a natural reduction in the birth rate characterized this period. Consequently, the change in the social sphere, the reduction in the number of population must have been caused by alterations in the economic sphere on one hand, and by the natural reduction on the other hand. The economic change affected the infrastructure, as well. The sugar-beet was transported especially by train, what is more transportation by train to the factory in Mezőhegyes was the most significant in the region. As the time went by transportation on roads became more and more important beside the railway. The sugar factory polluted the environment at a certain degree. This way the economic sphere changed the natural sphere, too. A Mezőhegyesi Ménesbirtok the adverse meteorological one - two exceptionally drought years -, and into an other economic crisis situation avoided often in the examined period because of relations, indebted, his liquidity was deteriorating. They saw the definitive solution in the privatization, which they accomplished in an one-turn procedure, on the road of an open application. A Ménesbirtok Rt. shares in 85,5% are property of Határhaszon Rt., 13% employee’s share and 1,5% ordinary share of Ménesbirtok Rt. The company may have known profitable financial years behind himself since the privatization.
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