Ultimele Noutati
MEDALIA DE AUR LA SALONUL INTERNATIONAL DE INVENTICA GENEVA, EDITIA 2017
 
Apr
03
Postat de: AdminAGRO
Sectiune: Faculty of Agriculture
MEDALIA DE AUR LA SALONUL INTERNATIONAL DE INVENTICA GENEVA, EDITIA 2017
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Parteneri
 
 
Chapter 2 Sustainable Development and Environmental Engineering

 

 INFLUENCE OF FOREST CURTAINS ON CROPS IN SOUTH DOBROGEA
 
Anca-Nicoleta  Albu, Liliana  Panaitescu, Marius Lungu
„Ovidius”University  Constanta
 
Abstract: The position of the Dobrogea Plateau in the south-east of Romania and in the close vicinity of Black Sea accounts for its top continental climate in Romania. The climatic changes which determined within the latest years the intensification of extreme phenomenon, who has an unfavourable influence on the planted or spontaneous vegetation. To reduce and prevent these phenomena have planted a series of experimental protective forest belt near Mangalia, observing a series of advantages in terms of protection and evolution of cultivated plants. Experimental network in Mangalia contains a 20 number of protective forest belts, aged 5 to 10 years, of which 15 consist of mixtures of locust and 5 acacia. Curtains of mixed species differ both as age, height, width and planting scheme, and hence their penetrability is different. Measurements were made with anemomete and portable vane, in June, July, August, which were taken into account during the growing season and the angle that the wind made him the veil of protection from which direction it was blowing at the time making observations. Research has shown that wind speed is reduced so before curtain (the wind) and the forest behind the curtain and the reduction of wind speed value is a function of density veil, its penetrability and height of trees. The same veil of wind acting differently in a year, depending on seasons. Thus, trees and shrubs, summer, the leaf had a much lower penetration compared to the months of autumn and early primãvarii when leafless. Network protection act and the microclimatic conditions in winter, by keeping snow and spring, summer and autumn plants by reducing evapotranspirations. At the same time, installing curtains forest is a prerequisite for growth forest. Network of forest belts will actually be a basis for a possible extension of forest in such dry areas that prove to be less favorable and profitable for agricultural use.
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ANALYSIS PERIOD AND DURATION OF FREEZING IN SOUTH DOBROGEA AND CONSEQUENCES OF THESE FACTORS ON CROPS
 
Anca-Nicoleta  Albu, Marius  Lungu, Liliana  Panaitescu
„Ovidius”University  Constanta
 
 Abstract: Soil temperature has a strong influence on plant growth and development, the processes taking place is normally only between plant-specific thermal limits, and each phase of vegetation. With falling temperatures below 00C, involved process of freezing, which in some conditions can become harmful to plants cultivate.To prevent the damages from these phenomena, it is necessary to know mainly the types of freezing that can affect crops, the period of freezing, etc. Frosts can occur in three different periods: winter, autumn and spring. Winter frosts called "black frost" causes, in general, less damage to agriculture, since intervening in a dormant period. However, these frosts, have a sensible action on vegetation when a period of several days, the temperature values fall below a threshold lowered. In the same time autumn frosts cut off vegetation cultures by providing  the date of harvesting. In South Dobrogea was analyzed duration and period of freezing, using climate data for a period between 1965-2000, the main weather stations (Constanta, Mangalia, Medgidia, Adamclisi, Harsova). Based on these data, using statistical methods as the frequency and duration, could determine the index of the persistence of freezing that can characterize the degree of harshness of the climate. To calculate the index of thepersistence of freezing in the territory of South Dobrogea werw used multiannual average annual number of days with frost and no frost during the annual interval, resulting lenghth  of days with  frost possible. Thus, one can notice a lower persistence of frost in the Black sea, because of its moderating influence, while in the freezeng high plateau is greater persistence due to thermal inversions. In conclusion, the index of  the persistence of frost can characterize the degree of harshness of the climate particulary for crops. Depending on these results we can see the consequences of these phenomena on crops, but also measures may be taken to prevent damage crops.
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CURRENT TRENDS FOR DEVELOPING AT GLOBAL LEVEL A SUPPLEMENTARY PROTOCOL ON LIABILITY AND REDRESS TO THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY
 
Maria Mihaela Antofie, Camelia Sand
University Lucian Blaga from Sibiu
  
Abstract: Art. 27, entitled Liability and Redress, of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) to the Convention on the Biological Diversity is stating that the Parties should adopt a process with respect to the appropriate elaboration of international rules and procedures in the field of liability and redress for damage resulting from transboundary movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) and shall endeavour to complete this process in four years. As this deadline was not respected due to the very complex process in negotiations globally, the 4th Conference of the Parties (COP) (2008) gives strict instructions to the Ad Hoc Technical and Expert Group on Liability and Redress to negotiate a Draft Supplementary Protocol to be further negotiated and adopted during the COP 5 in October 2010. The operational text to be negotiated is adopted as COP 4 decision. During the last negotiation sessions of the AHTEG (Thailand 8-12 February 2010) the operational text was tabled for discussions and negotiations but no general agreement was attained and discussions included guidelines on civil liability, supplementary compensation scheme and complementary capacity-building measures. Such new items developments are highly depending upon the type of the developed and adopted new regime for the Liability and Redress. Still during the last round negotiation it was agreed to be elaborated a single legally-binding provision on civil liability among the others administrative liability of the new supplementary protocol. In this paper it is discussed, applying the negotiations rules and procedures for using the draft paper submitted for negotiations and some legal implications for Romania as a member state if such a Protocol is adopted. Also the paper discuss the European and Romanian legislation already in force for genetically modified organisms in the field of liability and redress and reveals the next steps in further influence and develop the European legislation.
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DECREASING THE NOISE LEVEL USING RUBBERIZED ASPHALT
 
Vasile  Bacria
”Politehnica” University of Timiºoara
  
Abstract: In the context of sustainable development and environmental protection, a special issue is represented by noise generation and propagation in the urban environment. An important contribution at the noise generated by the road transportation means in the urban environment has the noise produced by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface. In this paper we present an investigation of the effects of rubberized asphalt on decreasing the noise produced by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface in the road traffic. This is a very actual problem which concerns also the researchers from USA, Great Britain, Italy, and so on. In our country it is for the first time when these kinds of problems are undertaken. In this paper we investigated the noise generated by the transportation means in the urban environment identifying the sources and the characteristics of the noise generated by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface, the propagation ways, noxious effects and admissible limits. In order to characterize the noise we have accomplished measurements in 62 points located near some of the most important crossings from Timisoara City. The measurements were performed using the Bruel & Kjaer 2237 Controller Integrating Sound Level Meter, the N.L.-20 Sound Level Meter and the Bruel & Kjaer 2250 Hand Held Analyzer. These ones allowed identifying and recording the most important parameters of the noise. The results of measurements were processed, analyzed, interpreted and compared with the admissible values defined by standards. Some methods intended to decrease the noise generated by the contact between the wheel and the rolling surface were established and implemented. The effect of the implementation of these measures for decreasing the noise was evaluated through new measurements. In the paper we present a comparison between the situations existing in before and after the implementation of noise decreasing measures. In the same time, taking account that an important contribution to the noise generated by the road transportation has the wheel-road contact, this one can be reduced by covering the road with rubberized asphalt. Using this measure, it is obtained an important decrease of the noise level. This is used also for increasing the traffic safety through eliminating vehicle skidding. Consequently, we have analyzed in the paper the effect of the rubberized asphalt on decreasing the noise in Timisoara City.
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NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOLVING POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN AQUIFERS
 
Mihaela Violeta Bakos
Faculty of Hydrotehnic
 
Abstract: Pollution of aquifers is a major environmental policies worldwide, show numerous international events dedicated to this subject. Remedial and protective measures undertaken are limited, often not reaching the expected efficiency failed due to excessive costs necessary to remedy, because the application of inappropriate methods and technologies as well as relatively long time necessary to remedy the aquifers. Currently we have a specialized unit able to develop and solve an aquifer pollution from its definition to implement remedies. Recent reports show that post that pollution, despite progress made in the field, remains a major reason for concern due to direct discharges, due to indirect discharges through nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, and due to leakage from old or contaminated industrial sites in landfills. Although point sources of pollution have caused most of the pollution identified so far, there are data showing that the diffuse sources have a growing impact on groundwater. For proper pollution problems exist in the aquifer analytical solutions and numerical solutions in this paper we present numerical methods used to solve the problems of contaminated groundwater, and we will give special attention Finite Difference method and Random Walk method. These methods provide a representation in space and time of pollutant concentration. Market appeared many programs for calculating the concentration of pollutants in the aquifer, but are very expensive and require a very good knowledge of the input parameters, an understanding of the phenomenon and the scope of use. We present an example of pollution of aquifers, using the modeling ASMWIN. The process of transport of pollutants in the aquifer it will take into account the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of pollutants, the environment in which they learn the transport of pollutants, the state that is found underground pollutants in the environment: and the processes that control the transport of contaminants in the environment Underground: The main objective pursued in this work is to develop mathematical models to study processes taking place in aquifer pollution. The results obtained may contribute to an overall program evaluation, monitoring and remediation of aquifers that are in line with the main trends and orientations in the field of protection of groundwater resources on a European and global.
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IMPACT OF GEODETIC STUDIES AND MEASUREMENTS ON PRESERVATION AND
REABILITATION OF FORESTRY HERITAGE
 
Alina Corina Bãlã, Floarea-Maria Brebu, Carmen Grecea
”Politehnica” University of Timiºoara
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
      
Abstract: The policy regarding environment preservation, as a relationship of mankind with nature, has changed in time, as on the awareness of the anthropic activities, with irreversible effects and with dramatic consequences on the modified natural environment. The limit between the agricultural lands and the forestry zones will be modified on the benefit of the agricultural lands and grazing lands, firstly, because of the demographic pressure. Another cause of national and global modifications represents the abusive use of forest lands. Topographic and cadastral measurements have a special importance in the environmental protection research, especially for monitoring the effects of nature’s geometrical modifications. There are also evaluated the effects of anthropic modifications on the environment. All forest sectors directly related to field data cannot operate without detailed maps of the specific area. Currently, most forest plans were made in Romania over 15 years old and no longer correspond to any reality from the field. Evolution and rapid development of surveying technology has led to these graphical products and other data necessary for a complete forest planning and its efficient management. In the paper it is presented a study case related to Savârșin forest area, Arad county, as a boundary project using GPS technology and also satellite photograms for future 3D modelling of forested territories. The large use of the automatically tools of measurement and processing, the elaboration of digital plans and maps lead to modern land management system which can face the present request from this field of activity. The applicability of the informational systems will last a long period of time, while both categories of classic and digital materials will operate. During all this period, the technical equipment for data collection, processing, storage and overview will continue developing, in order to accelerate the complex project of informational systems achievement.Key words: surveying, GPS, satellite photogram, detailed map, environment, 3D modelling.
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BY GIS
                                      
A. Bãneº, Manuela-Dora Orboi, A. Monea, Mirela Monea
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts, the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.  Sustainable development is maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future generations depend. GIS organizes geographic data so that a person reading a map can select data necessary for a specific project or task. GIS can be an important tool for helping people map out plans for successfully achieving management strategies that are sustainable both at local and global levels. A good GIS program is able to process geographic data from a variety of sources and integrate it into a map project. Many countries, except ours, have an abundance of geographic data for analysis. GIS is key tool used in assessment, prioritization, mitigation, planning, science and training. Economic inequality, social instability and environmental degradation are common features of unsustainable development. Poor people bear the brunt of these problems because their livelihoods are precariously balanced on volatile economic opportunities and environments vulnerable to change. What we need is a national strategie for sustainable development (strategic and participatory process of analysis, debate, capacity strengthening, planning and action towards sustainable development), a tool to assist the farmers in overcoming their problems and start to strengthen their capacity for sustainable development. Using GIS in sustainable agriculture can lead to great benefits, especially for how they can be seen all the cultures they represent, the soil which are substances in the soil, availability of water, crop rotation, pests.
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CONVERTING FROM CONVENTIONAL TO ORGANIC VITICULTURE IN MINIS-MADERAT VINEYARD
 
Eva Bãra, Florentina Simona Barbu
“Aurel Vlaicu” University from Arad
  
Abstract: Organic viticulture in our country is at the beginning, observing vine technology is currently growing a very large number of synthetic chemicals: fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers. However all these substances undo even the concept of organic viticulture. Without soil protection, vines can not provide healthy wines and grapes, organic quality. Active biological control of soil favors a balanced nutrition, rich in humus and mineral elements required for the plants development. Knowing the results of using synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides it is necessary to know, through mass media, enough of the soil protection laws. In EU countries this protection laws were well highlighted and firmly applied. Converting from conventional viticulture to organic viticulture is a dynamic process of creating a sustainable and self-regulating system. This issue is implemented within a longer or shorter period of time, depending on the preexisting chemicalization degree, on the soil pollution, the degree of attack on disease, pests, weed infestation, training and environmental awareness of farmers. The period from year zero until the obtaining of accreditation authorization is called the conversion period which lasts for about 5 years in viticulture, being carried out in 2-3 stages. This is called conversion step by step. It is necessary to underline that organic viticulture achieves lower yields compared to current conventional production system, which generates higher production costs. In compensation to organic wine products, they may be sold with a price 35-45% higher than the other conventional wine products, thus becoming more profitable. Romania’s integration into European Community structures requires adaptation of vine-wine production in our country to the best current quality standards as organic products. Measures have an important role: a rational fertilization of plantations, avoiding nitrogen excess which causes raising vine diseases and pests attack, avoiding deficiencies or excess of potassium, making timely tillage, eliminating by the work in green, of many sources of infection, determining the elements of forecasting and warning based on economic pest thresholds. Benefits of alternatives for biological control of pests and diseases are: it is avoided the use of polluting products, the use of low phytotoxicity products, obtaining crops without chemical treatments, prevention of resistance to pesticides, ensuring human and other creatures health by using cleaner control methods. 
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ORGANIC FARMING, A CHANCE FOR ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE
 
Florentina Simona Barbu, Eva Bãra
“Aurel Vlaicu” University  from Arad
 
Abstract: Organic farming is an industry emerging economies around the world, a trend due to the general public awareness of the negative effects due to intensive agriculture performing, both upon human health and continue environmental degradation. Organic farming, which does not mean the way back to traditional subsistence farming,  is emerging today as a great hope for post-industrial progress of mankind. In a world where agriculture has become rather a source of income than a food resource, repairing the serious imbalance caused by super intensive  agricultural systems based on excessive chemicalization mandates the adoption of new strategies to protect natural resources, land, plants and humans against pollution and continuous degradation. The mirage of super industrialized agriculture, reflected in the impressive crop yields incredibly large, is about to collapse as life proves that this type of farming does not guarantee food safety and human welfare over time. As a result of growing a small number of varieties of abandoning crop rotation systems, of excessive or uncontrolled irrigation, of the abuse of chemicals that have polluted soil and waters and employing biological stimulators, today we are witnessing a process of soil degradation threatening human capacity of ensuring food for future generations. This danger, highlighted decades ago, today is expressed by the depletion of natural fertility of soil, by the rapid advance of desertification process, with chronic social consequences, especiallyon the long run. It is important that by the advanced chemicalization new diseases and pests have appeared, resistant to treatments applied. In turn, biotechnology or genetic engineering could only temporarily solve the great problems of mankind, for nature has produced new more resistant and more destructive varieties. Organic farming fully meets sustainability objectives, it contributes to sustainable development and to the production of high quality and healthy products, and implements sustainable production methods in terms of environment. Contribution of organic agriculture sector is growing in most Member States of the European Union and worldwide. In this context, it is necessary for organic production to play an increasingly greater role in agricultural policy and to be closely related to development of agricultural markets as well as to the protection and conservation of lands meant for agricultural activities. Organic farming plays an important role in implementing the Community's sustainable development policy. Organic farming can contribute to the ultimate goal of sustainability.
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TOPOGRAPHICAL-CADASTRAL MEASUREMENTS NECESSARY FOR THE EXECUTION OF SEWAGE SYSTEM IN JENA VILLAGE, TIMIS COUNTY, ROMANIA
 
Luminiþa Livia Bârliba1, I. Nemeº 2, C. Bârliba 1, G. Eleº 2
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
2Politechnica University of Timisoara, Romania
  
Abstract: The paper is based on results of a land survey to modernize it according to E. U. requirements the work was performed in JENA, TIMIª County. This paper is prepared by the methodology in force, performing topographical-cadastral works necessary for the execution of sewage system in Jena village, Timis County, Romania on 2936.00 m length. In this context, what we have studied in our paper is the influence of topography on the rural areas, the way it is applied in these areas, and implicitly its influence on regional development.  The stages of the land survey were as follows: - Support survey network, made of the points in the national survey network which stood at the basis of our land measurements; - Determination of the survey network, consisting of all the traversing posts; - Actual planimetric or leveling survey, by determining the position of the characteristic points that define the details of the area. The precision which has to be accounted for, in other words the maximum admitted errors in determining the coordinates of the points found on the contour of the details is of ±15 cm in flat open country. Topographical field works were conducted with total station Leica TC 805 by polygonal course process using the Romanian national geodetic system - Stereographic Projection 1970. Data processing was performed with post-processing software and specific programs of work - TOPOSYS, AUTOCAD. For the preparation of documentation, after the measurements, the data stored in electronic memory of tachymeter - Total Station Leica TC 805 were transferred to the computer memory. Leveling points were determined by polygonal course for geometrical levelling. Processing of surveying measurements was performed with the software TOPOSYS.
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PROJECT FOR IDENTIFICATION AND MEASURING A FOREST AREA SITUATED INTO THE ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORY OF GIROC, TIMIS COUNTY
 
Luminiþa Livia Bârliba1, I. Nemeº 2, C. Bârliba 1, G. Eleº 2
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
2Politechnica University of Timisoara, Romania
  
Abstract: The forest as main fighting element against soil degradation and pollution is the larger gift that nature could offers to the human being, continuing to be a great miracle even for the greatest specialists. A modern democracy, cannot be consolidate without having the private propriety as main background which is the result of hard work and life saving, due to which the main goal of the human being is to improve its life conditions. The paper shows up a technical documentation for measuring and identification of forest situated on administrative territory of GIROC, TIMIS county. The purpose of the paper consist in registering the forest area into the Land Register Book according to the owners name by applying the 247/2005 law. The whole area is covered by forest vegetation. The 61.90 ha of oak forest, is having a medium density of 4m, the trees height is around 12 m, and the average thick is 0.25m. The forest is situated nearby Timiseni Monastery at the territorial administrative boundary between Sag and Giroc district. The work beneficiary: Timisoara Archbishopric, Saraca Monastery. The work purpose: consist in identification and field measurements in order to land register the woods  parcels Pd420, Pd425, Pd425, Pd411, Pd407, Pd408 in the Timisoara Archbishopric propriety, on the territorial administrative territory of Giroc. Concerning the juridical situation of the propriety, for the moment this is part of the Committee of Propriety Laws for the propriety restitutions, of Giroc Council, Timis County. The topographical field measurements were achieved by using TRIMBLE 5503 DR total station. The projecting system used is Stereografic 70 projecting system. The data acquired by the field measurements, was processed by GEOTOP- Odorheiu Secuiesc software, TOPOSYS 5.1.
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SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE NECESSITY OF IMPLEMENTING THE AGRICULTURAL LAND CONSOLIDATION PROJECTS IN ROMANIA
 
A. Blenesi
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
  
Abstract: Agriculture remains a significant sector of the Romanian economy in terms of area, contribution to the GDP and in particular share in the total employment. Romania’s total area is 14.8 million hectares, out of which 9.4 million is arable land, accounting 63% of total agricultural area. Agriculture accounts 13% of Romania’s GDP and its share in employment remains excessively high (38%) with negative consequences for farm productivity and rural incomes. The way chosen by Romania to give back collective land (i.e. land that belonged previously to agricultural production cooperatives) resulted in a highly fragmented ownership pattern. Privatization and redistribution of agriculture land has involved more than 5 million people, fragmenting land-ownership and causing the average farm size to fall to less than 3 ha. Farms are, moreover, divided into 4 or 5 separate parcels. As a consequence Romania’s farming sector a polarized structure in land operation emerged and developed: on one hand a large number of small peasant household farms, and on the other hand a relatively low number of large-sized farms, organized according to private holdings principles. In between, there has been a yet relatively thin layer of individual agricultural holdings that have a production potential and orientation of economic activity quite similar to those of the family farms in the EU Member States. The ability of the Romanian agricultural and rural sectors to cope with the competitive pressures in an enlarged single market will also be dependent upon the quality of decision making in mitigating the effects of land fragmentation, which should be part of a wider and more comprehensive rural development policy. Thus, in an optimistic evaluation only a little more than 6% of total individual agricultural holdings from Romania could be compared with the family farms in the EU countries. This figure is quite relevant and does not impose additional comments on the efficiency of land resources allocation to the largest part of agricultural producers from our country. We should highlight here once again the need to accelerate the process of land consolidation into viable farms, able to face the competition in the European Union. In the same time appears an immediate benefit for the improvement of the agricultural property structure and ownership, less fragmented and adequately equipped with rural and agricultural infrastructure.
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NEW FINANCIAL MECHANISM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES
 
Vanina Adoriana  Boglea,  Mihaela Ioana  Iacob
“Aurel Vlaicu”University from  Arad
 
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of using fiscal policy as a key to a more sustainable development. Sustainable development is the concept of maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future generations depend. One of the methods already put into practice by some of the developed countries, which could be a saving solution for improving the environmental quality, is the fiscal policy, guided in this respect.The development of environmental tax revenue is currently subject to opposite forces; on the one hand, policymakers give high priority to environmental protection, a trend which may grow even stronger as attention focuses on the threat from global warning; on the other, greater reliance on policy instruments other than taxes, such as emissions trading, and growing political pressure to accommodate the strong increases in the oil price recorded in the last few years by reducing taxation of energy. Environmental taxes can be divided into three categories: energy taxes, transport taxes (taxes on vehicles) and pollution/resources taxes. These belong to the category of indirect taxes or consumption taxes. Environmental taxes are not a significant percentage of GDP in most EU countries. In 2007, revenues from environmental taxes in the EU-27 accounted for 2,5 % of GDP and for 6,2 % of total revenues.The role of environmental taxes remains one marginal in most EU Member States. However, some Member States, like Denmark and The Netherlands achieved significant share of environmental tax in relation to GDP. I consider that as the environmental taxes are concerned, the evolution registered in the European Union, has not yet reached the desired results. Therefore, the effects of taxation in the European Union, regarding environmental protection cannot be assessed as satisfactory. There are therefore necessary the community’s efforts in this respect, from overcoming the dialogue state and adopting measurements that are accepted by all member states.
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THE ENERGETIC EFFICIENCY AT MAIZE IN CLASSIC AND NO-TILL SYSTEMS IN CONDITION OF ARAD AREA
 
I. Borza,  I. Gaica,  D. Dicu
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara
 
Abstract: The study was performed in conditions of the year 2009 on a mollic preluvosoil (SRTS 2003) in maize culture cultivated in classic and no-till systems. The energetic efficiency is quantified using two indicators: the energetic efficiency and the energetic balance. Following the energetical transformations made on equivalent basis, there was a report calculation between invested and obtained energy in agrosistem. Having a report between energy found in the main agricultural product – output – and energy invested in the ecosistem – input – determine energetic cost of every calory witin this product or conversion efficiency of energy invested.The energetic efficiency must be one of the main directions of economical restructuration in agriculture because assures production competitivity, takes environment protection into account and diminishes dependence from imported energy, mostly regarding fossiliyed fuels. The analysis effectuated over some agricultural crops of economical remarkable importance shows that after the use of particular technology based on mechanisation and high fertiliyation; the best efficiency was obtained to maise. The solar energy is not the only energetic input at plant disposal of agricultural importance. It is considered to be the most important and by all means it is free. the others inputs categories (soil preparation, sowing, fertilisation, phytosanitary treatments, etc.) require expulse which grow faster, from year to year, than biological-alimentary energy obtained by agricultural crops. For energetic analysis an important indicator is the structure of energy consumption. This has direct actively energy consumption (fuel, thermic energy, electrical energy), indirect actively  energy consumption (manure, pesticide, seed) and passive energy consumption (tractors and agricultural vehicles) as main elements of consumption. After the report accompolishment between energetic impust and output it has been shown that some energy units can be obtained for a consumed energy unit.
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ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SUGAR SECTOR IN SERBIA
 
Dragica G. Bo¾iæ , M.  Petar,  Natalija  Munæan,  Lj. Bogdanov
Faculty of Agriculture, Serbia
 
Abstract: Serbia belongs to countries whose economic structure of agriculture has a high importance (the share of agriculture in the total population is 10.9%, the share in GDP from about 10%, and if you include food industry about 17%, while the share of exports is about 20%). In addition to major natural resources, Serbia has significant food industry capacities as well. In the field crop production structure of Serbia, besides cereals, the share of industrial crops predominates: sugar beet, sunflower and soybean. Sugar beet-growing areas amount to about 65 thousand hectares, and they produce about 3 million tons of sugar beet, whereas   sugar plant capacities produce about 400 thousand tons of sugar. Since the 2000-ths, sugar became one of the most important export product of Serbia (primarily due to EU countries export and Autonomous Trade Measures-ATM). The study focused on some major economic characteristics of the sugar production sector in Serbia during the period 2000-2008, displaying the basic indicators of the importance of this sector in the economic development of Serbia, i.e. the share of GDP, employment and total exports. Economic efficiency of sugar beet production on family farms of Serbia and its competitiveness in relation to some other important field crops was analyzed as well. The main data source was a publication of the Republic Institute for Statistics. The analysis of the economic efficiency of sugar beet production was based on gross margin calculations using elements sampled in a survey. The survey was conducted on 50 selected family farms involved in field crop production only.
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THE SITUATION OF PROTECTED AREAS IN THE COUNTY OF ARAD. OAK FOREST NATURAL RESERVE FLUFFY FROM CÃRAND
 
Ruben Budãu
Oradea University
  
Abstract: The paper shows the current situation of the protected areas from Arad county with the exemplification of the Natural reservation the Forrest of dense oak from Cãrand. One insists on the role of the protected area, of the management objectives and its particularities, one analyzes the problems from the reservation area, the current status of conservation and one proposes a series of actions for the keeping of the biologic biodiversity under optimal conditions and the carrying out of the main management objectives. The Natural Reservation the Forrest of Dense Oak from Cãrand is located in Arad county, on the area of the commune Beliu, in the forestry fund administered by the Private Forrest Division Dumbrava, within Base Unit IV Cãrand. The access in the reservation is made from the county road DJ 793 Sintea Mare – Chisindia, after the place of Seliºte, within the parcel limits between landscaping units 37 and 38. According to the UICN classification, the Natural Reservation the Forrest of Dense Oak from Cãrand has a surface of 2,1 hectars and corresponds to the category IV IUCN namely: area for management of the habitats especially for the conservation by means of management interventions. The Natural Reservation the Forrest of Dense Oak from Cãrand has as purpose the conservation of the existing brush of dense oak and this is based on the stipulation of the Law no. 426/18.07.2001, art.5 paragraph 2 and Annex 1, for the approval of the Government’s Emergency Order no. 236/2000 regarding the conditions of the protected natural areas, the conservation of the natural habitats, of the wild flora and fauna. The aspect of a natural reservation is extremely important due to the species found as well as due to the geographic location. The presence of the reservation constitutes an opportunity for the promotion of the area for tourist purposes, the drawing of financings by means of programs of durable development and for the development of some economic activities. The statute of natural reservation respectively of managed area for the conservation and protection of the biodiversity imposes the importance of the conservation of the biodiversity and landscape, of the necessity for durable use of the natural resources and for the imperative of finding the balance between the human activities and nature in its entirety.
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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMS TO RURAL EMPLOYMENT IN NON-AGRICULTURAL SECTORS OF THE LABOR MARKET
 
D. Buºe Florian, D. Goldan Tudor, D. Buºe Gheorghe-Florin
University of Petrosani
 
Abstract: The paper presents aspects of implementing effective professional training programs to develop the labor market by supporting the non-agricultural activities and attracting the people in the rural area. The performed legal and organizational procedures targeted: creation of the logistics of the project activities – location, persons; providing the resources to organize classes in every macro-region – logistics, facilities; providing the information portal about the project – web site design. The importance of the paper is regarded by to increased rural employment and labor market participation rate on non-agricultural activities. There were used the European Labor Employment Strategy and the National Strategies where we find the principles and the key areas for employment, with more implications towards the people from rural communities. The research project aims the dimensions, the priority action areas for the employment of the existing national and European Union strategies. The training programs support the following activities: project manager, tourism administrator and worker, sales agent, trading worker, fitter of board walls and ceilings, water plumber. The research included statistical analysis of the rural occupational and non-agricultural occupational structure from 4 pilot areas, corresponding to 4 macro-regions. The project is developed by the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest in partnership with various research institutions and other universities in Romania. The University of Petrosani, as partner, set up the rural professional training center. The training center benefits from the experience of the university specialists. The facilities in the university represent the guaranty for performance training. The use of the training programs consists in: occupations, for which these courses are organized, are frequently required in the labor market in Romania; courses are conducted by experienced specialists, the accumulation of knowledge is done through practical applications and case studies; courses are accessible to people who want to grow professionally as part of the target group. The project represented in the paper is called “The development of the labor market by promoting the non-agricultural occupations in rural areas”, European Social Funds, Sector Operational Program: Human Resource Development (POS DRU) CCI 2007RO051PO001.
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ASPECTS CONCERNING MODELING OF THE AIR POLLUTANTS DISPERSION
 
Gilda-Diana Buzatu
University of Craiova, Faculty of Horticulture
                  
Abstract: European directives on ambient air quality enter for the first time in Europe the concept of modeling in air quality assessment and management. Modeling of air quality management improves efficiency of the air quality management. By modeling, you can identify the contribution of various categories of sources to overcome the limits. Another major advantage of the use of modeling air pollutants in air quality management and evaluation is to improve capability to represent the spatial distribution of concentrations of pollutants, with effect from regional scale to local scale, even at the level of cities and streets. Furthermore, modeling will contribute to compliance or non-compliance to the quality objectives set by legislation while helping to identify areas where limits are exceeded. Impact assessment of air quality due the operation activities belonging to S.E. Craiova II was performed by mathematical modeling, the results reference to limits set by Order of the Minister of Water and Environmental Protection no. 592/2002 for approving the Norms on setting limits, the threshold values and criteria and methods of assessment of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, lead, benzene, carbon monoxide and ozone in ambient air, supplemented by the Order of the Minister of Environment and Water Management no. 27/2007. To calculate the dispersion of gaseous and particulate pollutants discharged into the atmosphere we used a specialized program called SIMGP v.4 developed under Visual Basic platform after the complete theory of the American model ISC3 (Sources Industrial Complex Models). The selection model is an important issue as there is no dispersion model recommended. Each model used should meet the needs of the particular analyzed case. Hundreds of models are available, and differences between their complexity and capacity to meet distinct physical or chemical processes in the atmosphere are evident. In this view, in this paper we will attempt a study of modeling the dispersion of pollutants at local level which will focus on assessing the impact on air quality resulting from emissions sources associated with the activities of the S.E. Craiova II, and quantify the impact that some air pollutants are having on the viticultural agroecosystems from the Dealurile Craiovei area by calculating the probabilities of exceeded maximum allowable concentrations for 30 minutes.
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MODEL PROJECT FOR REHABILITATION, REFURBISHMENT AND ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LANDS IN NAMOLOASA – MAXINENI RECLAIMED UNIT
 
Severin Cazanescu, Florica Mardare, Carmen Necula
INCDIF-ISPIF Bucuresti
  
Abstract: The prolonged droughts followed by floods, as result of climate changes, have a significant impact on agricultural production and on food safety. In such conditions, land reclamation works are vital, providing solutions for risks mitigation. In Romania, during the restructuring and reform process of agriculture, including the land reclamation sector, an important part of the existent infrastructure either couldn’t be adapted and was abandoned or remained unused as inadequate  to the new structures.  In such circumstances, the land reclamation works need to be rehabilitated and modernize in order to improve their performances and to reduce the operation costs. The paper presents a model project for the rehabilitation and worth of the hydro-ameliorative facilities in the Low Siret Plain. The following activities were performed in the project frame: estimation of the agro-productive potential of the climate, soil and water resources in the area; inventory and analyze of the existent land reclamation works and their impact on the environment; identification of the affected lands by different forms of degradation, risk evaluation and proposal of counteraction measures and ecological reconstruction. The methods and materials used were: soil maps, geo-morphological maps, analytic data regarding soil properties and groundwater chemistry, climatic data, on-site analysis. The research study is concluded with proposed works to be adopted, such as: -   rehabilitation of the defense dams of the precinct, drainage networks, irrigation; systems and related pumping stations; salted lands improvement; area landscaping for specific crops to obtain renewable energy sources. The paper importance is found in the National Plan for Rural Development, Priority Axis 1, Measure 125 a – “Infrastructure improvement and development connected with agricultural development and adaptation”, operational objective - Modernization and / or refurbishment of the irrigation systems and other land reclamation works.  The project was performed in the frame of the Research – Development Sector Plan of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
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MODERN TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL LEVELLING, BASED ON A 3D SCANNER
 
Severin Cazanescu, Doru Mihai, Radu Mudura
USAMV – FIFIM, Bucuresti
  
Abstract: Soil levelling becomes of high importance, in modern and intensive agriculture conditions. Its effects are found in providing optimal and equal conditions to the crops, during yielding and growing. In areas with water excess, the soil levelling provides an appropriate water runoff, ensuring a better water management. The levelling works design is based on land surveying performed for surface units (parcels) which are going to be ameliorated. Based on the survey plans, the following issues are settled: the alignments which need levelling and the necessary optimal slopes from the efficient runoff point of view; the areas of digging/filling, depending on optimal slopes, to minimize the volume and transport distance of the ground. The calculations are performed using “Least-squares method” or other approximate methods. Unfortunately, the use of these methods needs long time and their accuracy and effectiveness are limited. The paper presents a more effective technology to carry out levelling works, which is based on the newest technology used in environmental engineering. The method is tested in Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering Faculty, in Bucharest and consists in using the following 3 elements of high novelty: replacement of the classical survey with modern scanning methods using LASER technology devices; use of modern GIS applications, developed by ESRI International, for data processing, combined with efficient CAD applications, developed by Autodesk Inc., world widely utilized; generation of a 3D model, based on the information collected and processed in accordance with the above mentioned steps. The model is then sent to dirt mover machine, by the aid of an operating device, using LASER technology. This way, the dirt mover machine can model the land with high accuracy, low costs and minimum fuel consumption.   
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SUSTENABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF MAªLOC VILLAGE, TIMIª COUNTY
 
Laura Constantinescu, Adia Grozav, Iacob Nemeº
“Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Faculty of Hydrotechnical Engineering
 
Abstract: The concept of sustainable rural development refers to forms and methods of socio-economic development of which base it is to ensure a balance between socio-economic systems and environmental. One element of Maºloc village development, in addition to programs contained in the Development Strategy of Timiº County (DJ691 county road rehabilitation, water supply, founding a center for children with special educational needs, rehabilitation of school with grades 1-8), was the execution of one construction of MOBILROM in village. The paper presents data geotechnical study, which is the necessary base to design any building, being part of the technical documentation necessary to authorizing execution of construction works under the Law no. 50/29.07.1991, on the approval of execution of construction works.  Geotechnical investigation purpose is to providing information necessary of a relevant and economic design of construction works, adding these elements: the sequence of geological layers that form the foundation soil and their physical and mechanical parameters in the content of the active area of foundations; alert to special conditions of the site or difficult foundation soil; the hydrogeology conditions,
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